Active Wave Experiments in Space Plasmas: The Z Mode

  • R.F. Benson
  • P.A. Webb
  • J.L. Green
  • D.L. Carpenter
  • V.S. Sonwalkar
  • H.G. James
  • B.W. Reinisch
Part of the Lecture Notes in Physics book series (LNP, volume 687)


The term Z mode is space physics notation for the low-frequency branch of the extraordinary (X) mode. It is an internal, or trapped, mode of the plasma confined in frequency between the cutoff frequency f z and the upper-hybrid frequency fuh which is related to the electron plasma frequency fpe and the electron cyclotron frequency fce by the expression f 2 uh = f 2 pe + f 2 ce ; f z is a function of fpe and f ce .


Space Plasma American Geophysical Plasma Resonance Auroral Kilometric Radiation Electron Density Irregularity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • R.F. Benson
    • 1
  • P.A. Webb
    • 1
  • J.L. Green
    • 1
  • D.L. Carpenter
    • 2
  • V.S. Sonwalkar
    • 3
  • H.G. James
    • 4
  • B.W. Reinisch
    • 5
  1. 1.NASA/Goddard Space Flight CenterGreenbeltUSA
  2. 2.Stanford UniversityCaliforniaUSA
  3. 3.University of Alaska FairbanksUSA
  4. 4.Communications Research CentreTorontoCanada
  5. 5.University of Massachusetts LowellUSA

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