CO2 Enrichment of a Deciduous Forest: The Oak Ridge FACE Experiment

  • R. J. Norby
  • S. D. Wullschleger
  • P. J. Hanson
  • C. A. Gunderson
  • T. J. Tschaplinski
  • J. D. Jastrow
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 187)


Fine Root Soil Respiration Leaf Area Index Gross Primary Productivity Basal Area Increment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Belote RT, Weltzin JF, Norby RJ (2004) Response of an understory plant community to elevated [CO2] depends on differential responses of dominant invasive species and is mediated by soil water availability. New Phytol 161:827–835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Caspersen JP, Pacala SW, Jenkins JC, Hurtt GC, Moorcroft PR, Birdsey RA (2000) Contributions of land-use history to carbon accumulation in US forests. Science 290:1148–1151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Christensen B (2001) Physical fractionation of soil and structural and functional complexity in organic matter turnover. Eur J Soil Sci 52:345–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cramer W, Bondeau A, Woodward FI, Prentice C, Betts RA, Brovkin V, Cox PM, Fisher V, Foley JA, Friend AD, Kucharik C, Lomas MR, Ramankutty N, Sitch S, Smith B, White A, Young-Molling C (2001) Global response of terrestrial ecosystem structure and function to CO2 and climate change: results from six dynamic global vegetation models. Global Change Biol 7:357–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. DeLucia EH, Moore DJ, Norby RJ (2005) Contrasting responses of forest ecosystems to rising atmospheric CO2: implications for the global C cycle. Global Biogeochem Cycles 19:GB3006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Edwards NT, Tschaplinski TJ, Norby RJ (2002) Stem respiration increases in CO2-enriched trees. New Phytol 155:239–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. George K, Norby RJ, Hamilton JG, DeLucia EH (2003) Fine-root respiration in a loblolly pine and sweetgum forest growing in elevated CO2. New Phytol 160:511–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gunderson CA, Sholtis JD, Wullschleger SD, Tissue DT, Hanson PJ, Norby RJ (2002) Environmental and stomatal control of photosynthetic enhancement in the canopy of a sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L) plantation during three years of CO2 enrichment. Plant Cell Environ 25:379–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hanson PJ, Wullschleger SD, Norby RJ, Tschaplinski TJ, Gunderson CA (2005) Importance of changing CO2, temperature, precipitation, and ozone on carbon and water cycles of an upland-oak forest: incorporating experimental results into model simulations. Global Change Biol 11:1402–1423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hendrey GR, Ellsworth DS, Lewin KF, Nagy J (1999) A free-air enrichment system for exposing tall forest vegetation to elevated atmospheric CO2. Global Change Biol 5:293–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jastrow JD, Miller RM, Matamala R, Norby RJ, Boutton TW, Rice CW, Owensby CE (2005) Elevated atmospheric CO2 increases soil carbon. Global Change Biol 11:2057–2064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Johnson DW, Cheng W, Joslin JD, Norby RJ, Edwards NT, Todd DE Jr (2004) Effects of elevated CO2 on nutrient cycling in a sweetgum plantation. Biogeochemistry 69:379–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. King JS, Hanson PJ, Bernhardt E, DeAngelis P, Norby RJ, Pregitzer KS (2004) A multi-year synthesis of soil respiration responses to elevated atmospheric CO2 from four forest FACE experiments. Global Change Biol 10:1027–1042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Körner C, Asshoff R, Bignucolo O, Hättenschwiler S, Keel SG, Pelaez-Riedl S, Pepin S, Siegwolf RTW, Zotz G (2005) Carbon flux and growth in mature deciduous forest trees exposed to elevated CO2. Science 309:1360–1362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Körner C, Morgan J, Norby RJ (2006) CO2 enrichment: from plot responses to landscape consequences. In: Canadell J, Pataki D, Pitelka L (eds) Terrestrial ecosystems in a changing world. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York (in press)Google Scholar
  16. Luo Y, White LW, Canadell JG, DeLucia EH, Ellsworth DS, Finzi A, Lichter J, Schlesinger WH (2003) Sustainability of terrestrial carbon sequestration. A case study in Duke Forest with inversion approach. Global Biogeochem Cycles 17:1021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Luo Y, Su B, Currie WS, Dukes JS, Finzi A, Hartwig U, Hungate B, McMurtrie RE, Oren R, Parton WJ, Pataki DE, Shaw MR, Zak DR, Field CB (2004) Progressive nitrogen limitation of ecosystem responses to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide. BioScience 54:731–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Matamala R, Gonzàlez-Meler MA, Jastrow JD, Norby RJ, Schlesinger WH (2003) Impacts of fine root turnover on forest NPP and soil C sequestration potential. Science 302:1385–1387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Neher DA, Weicht TR, Moorhead DL, Sinsabaugh RL (2004) Elevated CO2 alters functional attributes of nematode communities in forest soils. Funct Ecol 18:584–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Norby RJ, Iversen CM (2006) Nitrogen uptake, distribution and turnover in a CO2-enriched sweetgum forest. Ecology 57:5–14Google Scholar
  21. Norby RJ, Wullschleger SD, Gunderson CA, Johnson DW, Ceulemans R (1999) Tree responses to rising CO2: implications for the future forest. Plant Cell Environ 22:683–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Norby RJ, Todd DE, Fults J, Johnson DW (2001) Allometric determination of tree growth in a CO2-enriched sweetgum stand. New Phytol 150:477–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Norby RJ, Hanson PJ, O’Neill EG, Tschaplinski TJ, Weltzin JF, Hansen RT, Cheng W, Wullschleger SD, Gunderson CA, Edwards NT, Johnson DW (2002) Net primary productivity of a CO2-enriched deciduous forest and the implications for carbon storage. Ecol Appl 12:1261–1266Google Scholar
  24. Norby RJ, Sholtis JD, Gunderson CA, Jawdy SS (2003) Leaf dynamics of a deciduous forest canopy: no response to elevated CO2. Oecologia 136:574–584PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Norby RJ, Ledford J, Reilly CD, Miller NE, O’Neill EG (2004) Fine-root production dominates response of a deciduous forest to atmospheric CO2 enrichment. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:9689–9693PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Riggs JS, Tharp ML, Norby RJ (2003a) ORNL FACE weather data ( Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge, Tenn.Google Scholar
  27. Riggs JS, Tharp ML, Norby RJ (2003b) ORNL FACE CO2 data ( Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge, Tenn.Google Scholar
  28. Sanders NJ, Belote RT, Weltzin JF (2004) Multi-trophic effects of elevated CO2 on understory plant and arthropod communities. Environ Entomol 33:1609–1616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sholtis JD, Gunderson CA, Norby RJ, Tissue DT (2004) Persistent stimulation of photosynthesis by elevated CO2 in a sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) forest stand. New Phytol 162:343–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sinsabaugh RL, Saiya-Cork K, Long T, Osgood MP, Neher DA, Zak DR, Norby RJ (2003) Soil microbial activity in a Liquidambar plantation unresponsive to CO2-driven increases in primary productivity. Appl Soil Ecol 24:263–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Six J, Elliott ET, Paustian K (2000) Soil macroaggregate turnover and microaggregate formational mechanism for C sequestration under no-tillage agriculture. Soil Biol Biochem 32:2099–2103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tissue DT, Lewis JD, Wullschleger SD, Amthor JS, Griffin KL, Anderson OR (2002) Leaf respiration at different canopy positions in sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) grown in ambient and elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide in the field. Tree Physiol 22:1157–1166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Van Miegroet H, Norby RJ, Tschaplinski TJ (1994) Optimum nitrogen fertilization in a short-rotation sycamore plantation. For Ecol Manage 64:25–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wullschleger SD, Norby RJ (2001) Sap velocity and canopy transpiration for a 12-year-old sweetgum stand exposed to free-air CO2 enrichment. New Phytol 150:489–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wullschleger SD, Gunderson CA, Hanson PJ, Wilson KB, Norby RJ (2002) Sensitivity of stomatal and canopy conductance to elevated CO2 concentration — interacting variables and perspectives of scale. New Phytol 153:485–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zak DR, Holmes WE, Finzi AC, Norby RJ, Schlesinger WH (2003) Soil nitrogen cycling under elevated CO2: a synthesis of forest FACE experiments. Ecol Appl 13:1508–1514Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. J. Norby
    • 1
  • S. D. Wullschleger
    • 2
  • P. J. Hanson
    • 2
  • C. A. Gunderson
    • 2
  • T. J. Tschaplinski
    • 2
  • J. D. Jastrow
    • 3
  1. 1.Oak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA
  2. 2.Environmental Sciences DivisionOak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA
  3. 3.Environmental Research DivisionArgonne National LaboratoryArgonneUSA

Personalised recommendations