Foamed polymers based on reactive oligomers

  • Fyodor A. Shutov
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 39)


This article surveys the specific features of polymer science for gas-filled polymers (main principles of their classification as well as the major problems of their physics, chemistry, technology and application). Special attention is given to the discussion of the author's findings concerning the morphology of foamed plastics based on reactive oligomers such as polyurethane, phenolic and urea-formaldehyde polymers. These findings evidence the presence in their cellular structure of micromorphological cells (size: 0.01–0.1 micron), which the author terms microcells. It is especially emphasized that these microcells represent the most fundamental and most widely used type of such foamed plastics. The number of these microcells is 102–103 times higher than that of the well-known macrocells; this is why the specific surface area of such polymer substances is larger than 200 m2/g. The physicochemical properties of oligomeric foamed polymers (thermooxidation, electrical and moisture absorption) are explained by the microcell concept. Future trends with regard to new starting materials, methods of preparation, technology, theoretical investigation and long-term perspectives of these plastic foames are discussed.


Polyurethane Foam Apparent Density Moisture Absorption Furfuryl Alcohol Syntactic Foam 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method


triethylenediamine/dipropylene glycol




Soviet grade of resol phenol-formaldehyde foam


Soviet grade of resol phenol-formaldehyde foam


Gas-Structural Element




α, ω-methacryl(bisethylenegly cole) phtalate


α, ω-methacryl(diethyleneglycole) phtalate


nuclear magnetic resonance method


oligoester acrylate


oligoester methacrylate


oligoester fumarate maleates


Soviet grade of epoxide-novolac phenolic foam

PF foam

phenol-formaldehyde foam


-3S, -102, -305, -305A, -307 Soviet grades of PUR foams

PUR foam

polyurethane foam


reactive oligomer


static electrization


Soviet grade of phenolicurethane foam


Soviet grade of phenolicurethane foam


Simultaneous Interpenetrating Networks


tris(oxyethylene)-α, ω-(dimeth) acrylate


α, ω-dimethacryl (1,3) bisglycerine-2-phtalate

UF foam

urea-formaldehyde foam



sample thickness; coefficient


surface area of foamed plastic


amplitude of free nuclear induction

C1, C2, C3

empirical coefficients


thickness of struts; diameter of the water molecule


hydraulic diameter


diameter of cell; the most probable size of cells


current diameter of cells


breakdown voltage (dielectric strength)


frequency of electromagnetic field

F (x)

Weibull function


Planck constant


molar heat of phase transition


Boltzmann constant


empirical coefficient

K1, K2

coefficients of uniformity of cellular structure


length of rib of dodecahedron

la, lb, lc

traces of current via liquid foam


capillar length


mass of dry foam


mass of gas


mass of water


the arithmetic mean value


number of rows of foam models


porosity; pressure


saturated vapor pressure

Δ Pf

drop of the pressure of liquid


drop of the pressure of water steam

Δ Pc

suction pressure of capillaries


electrostatic charge


heat flow

r, R

cell radius

R1, R2

curvature radius


Reynolds number


specific surface area




flow rate


geometric volume of foam


weight humidity


contact angle


apparent density of foam


density of liquid


density of gas


saturation density of gase phase


density of polymer phase


density of water


gyromagnetic ratio of the nucleus




thickness of cell wall

tg δ

dielectric losses


dielectric permeability


kinematic viscosity




volume fraction of phase


volume fraction of gas


volume fraction of polymer phase


volume fraction of water


volume fraction of open cells


volume fraction of equilibrium water


volume fraction of the monomolecular layer of absorbed water


maximal value of ϑ*w


correction factor


generalized conductivity




the frequency of appearance of cells with size “i”


volumetric electroresistance


surface tension coefficient; surface density of charge; root-mean-square deviation


current time


time of equilibrium moisture absorption


longitudinal relaxation time


relative humidity


Pirson criterion


resistance coefficient


volume humidity


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fyodor A. Shutov
    • 1
  1. 1.Physical DepartmentBuilding InstituteLeningradUSSR

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