Dysphagia pp 823-857 | Cite as

Complications of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: Malnutrition and Aspiration Pneumonia

  • Silvia CarriónEmail author
  • Alicia Costa
  • Omar Ortega
  • Eric Verin
  • Pere Clavé
  • Alessandro Laviano
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Dysphagia is a symptom that refers to difficulty or discomfort during the progression of the alimentary bolus from the mouth to the stomach (Cook and Kahrilas 1999). From an anatomical standpoint, dysphagia may result from oropharyngeal or esophageal dysfunction and from a pathophysiological standpoint, from structure-related or functional causes. The term comes from the Greek and means difficulty (dys) when swallowing (phagia). It is currently possible to classify oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), with the codes 787.2 (ICD-9) and R13.1 (ICD-10) (WHO n.d.). In the ICD-10 version it is subdivided into R13.11 dysphagia, oral phase; R13.12 dysphagia, oropharyngeal phase; R13.13 dysphagia, pharyngeal phase; R13.14 dysphagia, pharyngoesophageal phase; and R13.19 other dysphagia.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Silvia Carrión
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Alicia Costa
    • 1
    • 2
  • Omar Ortega
    • 1
    • 2
  • Eric Verin
    • 3
  • Pere Clavé
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  • Alessandro Laviano
    • 5
  1. 1.Unidad de Exploraciones Funcionales Digestivas, Hospital de Mataró, Universitat Autònoma de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Centro de Investigación Biomédica en red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (Ciberehd), Instituto de Salud Carlos IIIMadridSpain
  3. 3.Service de Physiologie, Hôpital Charles Nicolle, CHU de RouenRouenFrance
  4. 4.European Society for Swallowing DisordersCanet de MarSpain
  5. 5.Department of Clinical MedicineSapienza UniversityRomeItaly

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