Dysphagia pp 531-548 | Cite as

Endoscopy of the Pharynx and Oesophagus

  • Doris-Maria Denk-Linnert
  • Rainer Schöfl
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


The pharynx and oesophagus belong to the upper digestive tract; their morphology and function enable normal swallowing. Dysphagia is one of the main symptoms in patients with laryngeal, pharyngeal and oesophageal diseases. Diagnostics need to consider the entire swallowing chain from the oral cavity to the stomach. However, there is a close relationship between diseases of the pharynx, larynx and oesophagus: gastrointestinal disorders, e.g. reflux disease, may show extraoesophageal manifestations in the pharynx and larynx, and in case of tumours in the upper aerodigestive tract or oesophagus, there may occur additional simultaneous tumours urging for early diagnosis.


  1. Alberty J, Müller C, Stoll W (2001) Is the rigid hypopharyngo-oesophagoscopy for suspected body impaction still up to date. Laryngo Rhino Otol 80:682–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aloy A, Schachner M, Cancura W (1991) Tubeless translaryngeal superimposed jet ventilation. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 248(8):475–478CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrea M, Dias O, Santos A (1995) Contact endoscopy during microlaryngeal surgery. A new technique for endoscopic examination of the larynx. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 104:333–339CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Aviv JE (2000) Prospective, randomized outcome study of endoscopy versus modified barium swallow in patients with dysphagia. Laryngoscope 110(4):563–574CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Aviv JE, Kim T, Sacco RL, Kaplan S, Goodhart K, Diamond B, Close LG (1998) FEESST: a new bedside endoscopic test of the motor and sensory components of swallowing. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 107:378–387CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Aviv JE, Spitzer J, Cohen M, Ma G, Belafsky P, Close LG (2002) Laryngeal adductor reflex and pharyngeal squeeze as predictors of laryngeal penetration and aspiration. Laryngoscope 112(2):338–341CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bastian RW (1991) Videoendoscopic evaluation of patients with dysphagia: an adjunct to the modified barium swallow. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 104(3):339–350CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Becker W, Naumann HH, Pfaltz CR (1983) Atlas der Hals-Nasen-Ohrenkrankheiten, 2nd edn. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  9. Bergman JJ, Fockens P (1999) Endoscopic ultrasonography in patients with gastro-oesophageal cancer. Eur J Ultrasound 10(2–3):127–138CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bigenzahn W, Denk D-M (1999) Oropharyngeale Dysphagien. Ätiologie, Klinik, Diagnostik und Therapie von Schluckstörungen. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  11. Dammer R, Bonkowski V, Kutz R, Friesenecker J, Schüsselbauer T (1999) Early diagnosis of additional tumors at diagnosis of primary oral carcinoma using panendoscopy. Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir 3:61–66CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Davaris N, Voigt-Zimmermann S, Roessner A, Arens C (2017) Narrow band imaging for evaluation of laryngeal mucosal lesions. HNO 65(6):527–542CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Denk D-M, Kaider A (1997) Videoendoscopic biofeedback: a simple method to improve the efficacy of swallowing rehabilitation of patients after head and neck surgery. Otorhinolaryngol 59:100–105Google Scholar
  14. Denk DM, Bigenzahn W (2005) Management oropharyngealer Dysphagien. Eine Standortbestimmmung [Management of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Current status]. HNO 53(7):661–672CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Dhooge IJ, De Vos M, Albers FW, Van Cauwenberge PB (1996) Panendoscopy as a screening procedure for simultaneous primary tumors in head and neck cancer. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 253(6):319–324CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Ekberg O, Olsson R (1997) Dynamic radiology of swallowing disorders. Endoscopy 29(6):439–446CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Herrmann I (1998) Advanced course in Videopanendoscopy, vol 32. Fortbildungsveranstaltung für HNO-Ärzte, HannoverGoogle Scholar
  18. Hörmann K, Schmidt H (1998) Flexible endosopy in ENT practice. HNO 46:654–659CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Jones B, Donner MW (1991) The tailored examination. In: Jones B, Donner MW (eds) Normal and abnormal swallowing: imaging in diagnosis and therapy. Springer, Berlin, pp 33–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kawaida M, Fukuda H, Kohno N (2002) Digital image processing of laryngeal lesions by electronic videoendoscopy. Laryngoscope 112:559–564CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Kleinsasser O (1968) Mikrolaryngoskopie und endolaryngeale Mikrochirurgie. Technik und typische Befunde. Schattauer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  22. Knyrim K, Wagner HJ, Bethge N, Keymling M, Vakil N (1993) A controlled trial of an expansile metal stent for palliation of oesophageal obstruction due to inoperable cancer. N Engl J Med 329(18):1302–1307CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Langmore SE (2001) Endoscopic evaluation and treatment of swallowing disorders. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  24. Langmore SE, Schatz K, Olsen N (1988) Fiberoptic endoscopic examination of swallowing safety: a new procedure. Dysphagia 2(4):216–219CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Langmore SE (2017) History of fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing for evaluation and management of pharyngeal dysphagia: changes over the years. Dysphagia 32:27–38. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Logemann J (1993) Manual for the videofluorographic study of swallowing, 2nd edn. Pro-ed, AustinGoogle Scholar
  27. Logemann JA (1998) Evaluation and treatment of swallowing disorders. Pro-ed, AustinGoogle Scholar
  28. Malzahn K, Dreyer T, Glanz H, Arens C (2002) Autofluorescence endoscopy in the diagnosis of early laryngeal cancer and its precursor lesions. Laryngoscope 112:488–493CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Monnier P, Lang FJ (1997) Current position of endoscopy in otorhinolaryngology. HNO 45(11):886–887CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Naccia A, Matteucci J, Romeo AO, Santopadrea S, Cavaliere MD, Barillari MR, Berrettini S, Bruno Fattori B (2016) Complications with Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing in 2,820 examinations. Folia Phoniatr Logop 68:37–45. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Owings MF, Kozak LJ (1998) Ambulatory and inpatient procedure in the United States. Vital and Health Stat (US-DHSS) 139:1–13Google Scholar
  32. Parparella MM, Shumrick DA, Gluckmann JL, Meyerhoff WL (1991) Otolaryngology, Head and neck, vol 3. W. B. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  33. Richards DG, Brown TH, Manson JM (2000) Endoscopic ultrasound in the staging of tumours of the oesophagus and gastro-oesophageal junction. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 82(5):311–317PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Rosenbek JC, Robbins JA, Roecker EB et al (1996) A penetration-aspiration scale. Dysphagia 11:93–98CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Savary M, Miller G (1977) Der Ösophagus. Lehrbuch und endoskopischer Atlas. Gassmann, SolothurnGoogle Scholar
  36. Schima W, Denk D-M (1998) Videofluoroscopic and videoendoscopic studies: complementary methods for assessment of dysphagia. Proceedings, EGDG, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  37. Schmidt H, Hormann K, Stasche N, Steiner W (1998) Tracheobronchoscopy and oesophagoscopy in otorhinolaryngology. An assessment of current status. HNO 46(7):643–650CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Schmidt H, Hormann K, Stasche N, Steiner W (2010) ENT-recommendations for oesophagoscopy. Laryngo-Rhino_Otol 89:540–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Schragl E, Bigenzahn W, Donner A, Gradwohl I, Aloy A (1995) Laryngeal surgery with 3-D technique. Early results with the jet-laryngoscope in superimposed high-frequency jet ventilation. Anaesthesist 44(1):48–53CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Schröter-Morasch H (1999) Klinische Untersuchung des Oropharynx und videoendoskopische Untersuchung der Schluckfunktion. In: Bartolome G (Hrsg): Schluckstörungen. Diagnostik und Rehabilitation. 2 Aufl, Urban & Fischer, München-Jena, pp 111–140Google Scholar
  41. Schröter-Morasch H, Bartolome G, Troppmann N, Ziegler W (1999) Values and limitations of pharyngolaryngoscopy (transnasal, transoral) in patients with dysphagia. Folia Phoniatr Logop 51(4–5):172–182CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Tio TL (1998) Endosonography in gastroenterology. Springer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  43. Tong MC, Gao H, Lin JS, Ng LK, Sang Chan H, Kwan Ng S (2012) One-stop evaluation of globus pharyngeus symptoms with transnasal oesophagoscopy and swallowing function test. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 41(1):46–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Wakelin SJ, Deans C, Crofts TJ, Allan PL, Plevris JN, Paterson-Brown S (2002) A comparison of computerised tomography, laparoscopic ultrasound and endoscopic ultrasound in the properative staging of osophago-gastric carcinoma. Eur J Radiol 41(2):161–167CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Warnecke A, Averbeck T, Leinung M, Soudah B, Wenzel GI, Kreipe HH, Lenarz T, Stöver T (2010) Contact endoscopy for the evaluation of the pharyngeal and laryngeal mucosa. Laryngoscope 120(2):253–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Ziegler K, Sanft C, Semsch B, Friedrich M, Gregor M, Riecken EO (1988) Endosonography is superior to computed tomography in staging tumors of the oesophagus and the cardia. Gastroenterology 94:A267Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Associate Professor, Section of Phoniatrics-Logopedics, Department of OtorhinolaryngologyMedical University of Vienna, Vienna General HospitalViennaAustria
  2. 2.Professor, Department of Internal Medicine IVHospital of the ElisabethinenLinzAustria

Personalised recommendations