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Dispersion of Inorganic Nanoparticles in Polymer Matrices: Challenges and Solutions

  • R. Y. HongEmail author
  • Q. Chen
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 267)

Abstract

Recently, nanoparticles with remarkable physical and chemical properties have attracted intense attention. Many techniques have been developed to synthesize nanoparticles. The introduction of nanoparticles into organic polymers offers an effective way to improve properties such as electrical conductivity, mechanical properties, thermal stability, flame retardancy, and resistance to chemical reagents. The properties of polymer composites depend on the nanoparticles that are incorporated, including their size, shape, concentration, and interactions with the polymer matrix. However, the lack of compatibility between inorganic particles and polymer matrix limits the applications of nanoparticles in composites. As a result of incompatibility, the dispersion of synthesized inorganic nanoparticles in polymer matrices is very difficult, and particles with specific surface area and volume effects can form aggregates. Therefore, it is necessary to modify the particles to overcome their tendency to aggregate and improve their dispersion in polymer matrices. Two ways are used to modify the surface of inorganic particles: modification of the surface by chemical treatment and the grafting of functional polymeric molecules to the hydroxyl groups existing on the particles. By surface modification of nanoparticles the dispersion of inorganic nanoparticles in organic solvents and polymer matrices is improved.

Keywords

Nanoparticles Organic–inorganic nanocomposites Surface modification 

Abbreviations

ABS

Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene

ATO

Antimony-doped tin oxide

ATRP

Atom transfer radical polymerization

BADCy

Bisphenol-A dicyanate [2,2-bis (4-cyanatophenyl) isopropylidene]

BFN

BaFe0.5Nb0.5O3

BST

Ba x Sr1−x TiO3

BSTO

Barium strontium titanyl oxalate [Ba1−x Sr x TiO(C2O4)2-4H2O]

CB

Carbon black

CE

Cyanate ester

CNF

Carbon nanofiber

CNT

Carbon nanotube

CTAB

Hexadecyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide

DBP

Dibutyl phthalate

DSC

Differential scanning calorimetry

EPDM

Ethylene-propylene-diene rubber

FF

Ferrofluid

FTIR

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

GMA

Glycidyl methacrylate

h-BaTiO3

Hydroxylated BaTiO3

HBP

Hyperbranched aromatic polyamide

IAAT

Isopropyl tris(N-amino-ethyl aminoethyl)titanate

iPP

Isotactic polypropylene

KH550

3-Aminopropyl triethoxysilane

KH570

γ-Methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane

MAH

Maleic anhydride

MF

Magnetic fluid

MMA

Methyl methacrylate

MMT

Montmorillonite

MRF

Magnetorheological fluid

MWCNT

Multiwalled carbon nanotube

PA6

Nylon 6

PC

Polycarbonate

PCL

Poly(caprolactone)

PLA

Poly(lactic acid)

PMMA

Poly(methyl methacrylate)

PP

Polypropylene

PP-g-MA

Poly(propylene-graft-maleic anhydride) copolymer

PPS

Polyphenylene sulfide

PS

Polystyrene

PU

Polyurethane

PVDF

Poly(vinylidene fluoride)

PVDF-HFP

Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)

PVP

Polyvinylpyrrolidone

SEM

Scanning electron microscopy

SWNT

Single-walled carbon nanotube

TBP

Tributyl phosphate

TEM

Transmission electron microscopy

TESPT

Bis(triethoxysilylpropyl)tetrasulfane

TG

Thermogravimetric

Tg

Glass transition temperature

XRD

X-ray powder diffraction

ZnFe2O4

Zinc ferrite

Notes

Acknowledgments

The project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, No. 21246002), the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program, No. 2009CB219904), the National Post-doctoral Science Foundation (No. 20090451176), the Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Materials and Engineering at Yangzhou University (No. K11025), the Technology Innovation Foundation of MOST (No. 11C26223204581), the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (No. BK2011328), and the Minjiang Scholarship of Fujian Province

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Chemical EngineeringFuzhou UniversityFuzhouChina
  2. 2.College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science & Key Laboratory of Organic Synthesis of Jiangsu ProvinceSoochow University, SIPSuzhouChina

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