Analysis of Polymer Additives and Impurities by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and Capillary Electrophoresis/Mass Spectrometry

Chapter
Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 248)

Abstract

The analysis of polymeric materials can be quite challenging because such samples are often of complex nature due to the presence of various groups of additives, compounding ingredients, and fillers. Of special importance are stabilizers that protect the material from degradation by thermal stress during manufacture or from environmental impact during use. Apart from intact stabilizers, the degradation products of stabilizers should also be identified to understand the reactions occurring in a polymeric material. In all cases, the optimization of performance of a polymer as well as the reduction of production costs requires adequate analytical methods, whereby high-performance liquid chromatography plays a major role. As outlined in this review, mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure ionization has become state-of-the-art for identification of components in polymeric materials after separation by liquid chromatography. These ionization techniques include electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, and atmospheric pressure photoionization. The latter technique shows various advantages such as low detection limits and applicability to a wide range of structurally different polymer additives. Besides chromatography, capillary electrophoresis has demonstrated some potential for separation of polymer stabilizers and for characterization of polymers, but its importance is still limited in comparison with liquid chromatography. As an alternative to the combination of chromatography with mass spectrometric detection, direct mass spectrometric techniques for solid polymer samples are emerging. These techniques provide new tools for quick screening procedures at the same time as avoiding tedious sample preparation.

Keywords

Additives Capillary electrophoresis Liquid chromatography Mass spectrometry Polymeric materials 

Abbreviations

APCI

Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

APPI

Atmospheric pressure photoionization

ASAP

Atmospheric solid analysis probe

CE

Capillary electrophoresis

CZE

Capillary zone electrophoresis

DART

Direct analysis in real time

DESI

Desorption electrospray ionization

EOF

Electroosmotic flow

ESI

Electrospray ionization

GC

Gas chromatography

HALS

Hindered amine light stabilizers

HPLC

High-performance liquid chromatography

MALDI

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization

MEEKC

Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography

MEKC

Micellar electrokinetic chromatography

MS

Mass spectrometry

NP

Normal phase

RP

Reversed phase

SEC

Size-exclusion chromatography

SFC

Supercritical fluid chromatography

SIMS

Secondary ion mass spectrometry

TOF

Time-of-flight

UHPLC

Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was funded partly by the COMET K-Project APMT (project number 825344) and by the FFG SolPol Projects (project numbers 825444 and 827788).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Analytical ChemistryJohannes-Kepler-University LinzLinzAustria

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