Advertisement

Indicator Products and Chromatographic Fingerprinting: New Tools for Degradation State and Lifetime Estimation

  • Lina Burman
  • Ann-Christine AlbertssonEmail author
  • Minna Hakkarainen
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 211)

Abstract

The demands on polymeric products are growing both with respect to their function and purity. There is a need for new high-throughput characterisation tools for rapid quality control and evaluation of materials. Precise control over degradation rate and service-life are also prerequisites for successful use of degradable polymers in an increasing number of applications. The chromatographic fingerprinting and indicator product concepts, presented in the current paper, are novel and attractive alternatives for rapid evaluation of the product quality, degradability, durability and service-life. The sensitivity of these techniques allows for detection of small initial changes in the materials and signs of early degradation. The possible applications include evaluation of different pro-oxidants or antioxidants, optimisation of processing parameters, evaluation of long-term properties or storage stability and lifetime prediction. The same principal could also be applied to process control and monitoring, acceptance or rejection of raw materials, intermediate and final products. The usefulness of indicator products and chromatographic fingerprinting is shown for estimation of the degradation state of degradable polyethylene. In addition, chromatographic fingerprinting together with multivariate data analysis is utilised to classify degradable polyethylene materials based on their incorporated pro-oxidant systems.

Chromatographic fingerprinting Degradation Indicator products Lifetime prediction Long-term properties  

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Allen NS (1992) Polymer Structure and Stability. In: Allen NS, Edge M (eds) Fundamentals of polymer degradation and stabilisation. Elsevier Applied Science, London, p 1 Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Albertsson A-C (1978) J Appl Polym Sci 22:3419 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Scott G (1993) Initiators, prooxidants and sensitizers. In: Scott G (ed) Atmos Oxid Antioxid. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 83 Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Griffin GJL (1977) US Patent 4016117 Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Scott G (1978) US Patent 4121025 Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Griffin GJL (1988) UK Patent PCT/GB88/00386 Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Burman L, Albertsson A-C (2005) J Polym Sci A Polym Chem 43:4537 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Billingham NC, Calvert PD (1980) Dev Polym Stab 3:139 Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Allen NS, Edge M (1992) Thermal Stabilisation of Polymers. In: Allen NS, Edge M (eds) Fundamentals of Polymer Degradation and Stabilisation. Elsevier Applied Science, London, p 22 Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pospisil J, Horak Z, Pilar J, Billingham NC, Zweifel H, Nespurek S (2003) Polym Degrad Stab 82:145 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Al-Malaika S, Chohan S, Coker M, Scott G, Arnaud R, Dabin P, Fauve A, Lemaire JM (1995) J Macromol Sci Pure Appl Chem A32:709 Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Erlandsson B, Karlsson S, Albertsson A-C (1997) Polym Degrad Stab 55:237 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Billingham NC, Prentice P, Walker TJ (1977) J Polym Sci Polym Symp 57:287 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Audouin L, Langlois V, Verdu J (2004) J Mater Sci 29:569 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Carlsson DJ, Wiles DM (1969) Macromolecules 2:587 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Adams JH (1970) J Polym Sci Polym Chem Ed 8:1077 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lacoste J, Carlsson DJ (1992) J Polym Sci A Polym Chem 30:493 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Albertsson A-C, Rånby B (1976) Biodegradation of synthetic polymers: the C-14 method applied to polyethylenes. In: Sharpley JM, Kaplan AM (eds) Proc 3rd Int Biodeg Symp. Applied Science Publishers, London, p 743 Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Albertsson A-C (1977) Thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Albertsson A-C, Karlsson S (1988) J Appl Polym Sci 35:1289 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ragnarsson L, Albertsson A-C (2003) Biomacromolecules 4:900 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Billingham NC, Then ETH, Gijsman PJ (1991) Polym Degrad Stab 34:263 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ahlblad G, Reitberger T, Terselius B, Stenberg B (1999) Polym Degrad Stab 65:179 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Willoughby BG, Goldby A, Daviess J, Cain R (2003) Polym Test 22:553 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Albertsson A-C, Banhidi ZG (1980) J Appl Polym Sci 25:1655 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Karlsson S, Banhidi E, Banhidi ZG, Albertsson A-C (1984) Accumulation of Malodorous Amines and Polyamines Due to Clostridial Putrefaction. In: Berglund B, Lindberg T, Sundell J (eds) Indoor Air 3: Sensoring and Hyperactivity Reactions to Sick Buildings. Liber Tryck AB, Stockholm, p 287 Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Albertsson A-C, Barenstedt C, Karlsson S (1992) Polym Degrad Stab 37:163 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hakkarainen M, Albertsson A-C, Karlsson S (1996) J Chromatogr A 741:251 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Khabbaz F, Albertsson A-C (2000) Biomacromolecules 1:665 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Albertsson A-C, Andersson SO, Karlsson S (1987) Polym Degrad Stab 18:73 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Albertsson A-C, Barenstedt C, Karlsson S (1994) J Appl Polym Sci 51:1097 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Karlsson S, Hakkarainen M, Albertsson A-C (1997) Macromolecules 30:7721 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wold S (1976) Pattern Recogn 8:127 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bro R (2003) Anal Chim Acta 500:185 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bro R (1996) Håndbog i multivariabel kalibrering. Jordbrugsforlaget, Copenhagen, p 53 Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Manne R (1987) Chemometr Intell Lab 2:187 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bro R, Smilde AK (2003) J Chemometr 17:16 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wroczynski RJ, Rabinsztajn M, Potyrailo RA (2004) Macromol Rapid Commun 25:264 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hakkarainen M, Gallet G, Karlsson S (1999) Polym Degrad Stab 64:91 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lindström A, Hakkarainen M (2007) J Appl Polym Sci 104:2458 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Capone S, Epifani M, Quaranta F, Siciliano P, Taurino A, Vasanelli L (2001) Sens Actuators B 78:174 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Vallejo-Cardoba B, Nakai S (1994) J Agric Food Chem 42:989 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Marsili RT (2000) J Agric Food Chem 48:3470 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Di Natale C, Macagnano A, Martinelli E, Paolesse R, Proietti E, D'Amico A (2001) Sens Acutators B 78:26 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Macagnano A, Carche M, Herrero A, Paolesse R, Martinelli E, Pennazza G, Carmano P, D'Amico A, Di Natale C (2005) Sens Acutators B 111:293 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Sakakibara K, Kaitani K, Hamada C, Sato S, Matsuo M (1999) JSAE Review 20:237 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Morvan M, Talou T, Gaset A, Beiau (2000) Sens Acutators B 69:384 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gerrigues S, Talou T, Nesa D, Gaset A (2001) Sens Acutators B 78:337 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Morvan M, Talou T, Beziau J-F (2003) Sens Acutators B 95:212 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Potyrailo RA, Wroczynski RJ, Morris WG, Bradtke GR (2004) Polym Degrad Stab 83:375 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lindström A, Albertsson A-C, Hakkarainen M (2004) Polym Degrad Stab 83:487 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hakkarainen M, Albertsson A-C (2005) Biomacromolecules 6:775 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gröning M, Hakkarainen M (2002) J Appl Polym Sci 86:3396 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Gonzalez-Velasco JR, Gonzales-Marcos JA, Delgado JA, Gonzales-Ortiz De Elguea C, Gutierrez-Ortiz JI (1996) Chem Eng Sci 51:1113 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gröning M, Hakkarainen M (2001) J Chromatogr A 932:1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Albertsson A-C, Barenstedt C, Karlsson S, Lindberg T (1995) Polymer 36:3075 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Albertsson A-C, Erlandsson B, Hakkarainen M, Karlsson S (1998) J Environ Polym Degrad 6:187 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hakkarainen M, Karlsson S, Albertsson A-C (1999) Polymer 41:2331 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hakkarainen M, Karlsson S, Albertsson A-C (2000) J Appl Polym Sci 76:228 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hakkarainen M, Albertsson A-C (2002) Macromol Chem Phys 203:1357 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Marie A, Fournier F, Tabet JC (2000) Anal Chem 72:5106 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Tuchbreiter A, Marquardt J, Zimmermann J, Walter P, Mulhaupt R (2001) J Comb Chem 3:598 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kappler B, Tuchbreiter A, Faller D, Liebetraut P, Horbelt W, Timmer J, Honerkamp J, Mulhaupt R (2003) Polymer 44:6179 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Tuchbreiter A, Kappler B, Stockmann R, Mulhaupt R, Honerkamp J (2003) Macromol Mater Eng 288:29 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Burman L, Albertsson A-C (2005) Polym Degrad Stab 89:50 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hakkarainen M, Albertsson A-C, Karlsson S (1997) J Appl Polym Sci 66:959 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hoff A, Jacobsson S (1981) J Appl Polym Sci 26:3409 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Albertsson AC, Barenstedt C, Karlsson S (1994) Acta Polym 45:97 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Arnaud R, Moisan JY, Lemaire J (1984) Macromolecules 17:332 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gugumus F (2002) Polym Degrad Stab 77:147 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hock H, Kropf H (1957) Angew Chem 69:313 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Plesnicar B (1983) In: Patai S (ed) The Chemistry of Peroxides. Wiley, Chichester, p 521 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lina Burman
    • 1
  • Ann-Christine Albertsson
    • 1
    Email author
  • Minna Hakkarainen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, School of Chemical Science and EngineeringRoyal Institute of Technology (KTH)StockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations