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On the Elaborate Network of Thioredoxins in Higher Plants

  • Ina Thormählen
  • Belén Naranjo
  • José Abraham Trujillo-Hernandez
  • Jean-Philippe Reichheld
  • Francisco Javier Cejudo
  • Peter Geigenberger
Chapter
Part of the Progress in Botany book series

Abstract

Thioredoxins represent ubiquitous small proteins acting as redox regulators of diverse metabolic and developmental processes in almost all organisms. These proteins contain highly conserved cysteines in their redox-active sites, which enable the modification of target enzyme conformation and activity by reversible thiol-disulfide exchanges. Since their discovery in plants around 40 years ago, the number of thioredoxin family members as well as the knowledge about their distinct functions are still increasing and under investigation. Originally, the first plant thioredoxin was found in chloroplasts, while further analyses demonstrated additional cytosolic, nuclear, mitochondrial, endomembrane, and non-photosynthetic plastid locations. This chapter provides an overview on the complexity of the thioredoxin family in higher plants and discusses its role in integrating metabolism, stress responses, development, and gene expression. This will help to understand why plants harbor the most versatile thioredoxin system among all organisms.

Abbreviations

ACHT

Atypical cysteine/histidine-rich thioredoxin

ADP

Adenosine diphosphate

AGPase

ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase

AMP

Adenosine monophosphate

AOX

Alternative oxidase

APS

AGPase small subunit

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

ATPase

ATP synthase

CBC

Calvin-Benson cycle

cDNA

Complementary DNA

CDSP

Chloroplastic drought-induced stress protein

CHLM

Mg-protoporphyrin methyl transferase

CxxS

Atypical thioredoxin h with cysteine-x-x-serine active site

Cys

Cysteine

Cyt b6f

Cytochrome b6f complex

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

ER

Endoplasmic reticulum

FAD

Flavin adenine dinucleotide

FBPase

Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase

FDX

Ferredoxin

FNR

Ferredoxin NADP+ reductase

FTR

Ferredoxin thioredoxin reductase

FUM

Fumarase

Gb

Gossypium barbadense

GFP

Green fluorescent protein

GGLC

Glycine-glycine-leucine-cysteine motif

Gly

Glycine

GRX

Glutaredoxin

GSH

Glutathione

HCF

High-chlorophyll-fluorescence-mutant protein

HCGPC

Histidine-cysteine-glycine-proline-cysteine motif

His

Histidine

LOV

Locus orchestrating victorin effects protein

Met

Methionine

MSR

Methionine sulfoxide reductase

NADP

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NADP+-MDH

NADP+-dependent malate dehydrogenase

NPQ

Non-photochemical quenching

NPR

Non-pathogenesis-related protein expressor

NRX

Nucleoredoxin

NTR

NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase

OAA

Oxaloacetate

ox

Oxidized

P

Phosphate

PC

Plastocyanin

PCNA

Proliferating cell nuclear antigen

PGR

Proton gradient regulation complex

Pi

Inorganic phosphate

PPi

Inorganic pyrophosphate

PQ

Plastoquinon

PRK

Phosphoribulokinase

protoMME

Protomonomethylester

PRX

Peroxiredoxin

PS

Photosystem

Ps

Pisum sativum

PsbS

Photosystem II subunit S

qE

Energy- or ΔpH-dependent quenching

RbcS

Gene of the Rubisco small subunit

red

Reduced

RNA

Ribonucleic acid

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

Rubisco

Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase

SAR

Systemic acquired resistance

SBPase

Sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphatase

SDH

Succinate dehydrogenase

SP

Peroxidatic cysteine residue

SR

Resolving cysteine residue

SRX

Sulfiredoxin

Ssb

Single-stranded DNA binding protein

TCA

Tricarboxylic acid

TDX

Tetratricoredoxin

THL

h-type thioredoxins in Brassica napus

TRX

Thioredoxin

WCEVC

Tryptophan-cysteine-glutamic acid-valine-cysteine motif

WCGPC

Tryptophan-cysteine-glycine-proline-cysteine motif

WCRKC

Atypical thioredoxin with tryptophan-cysteine-arginine-lysine-cysteine active site

YF

Tyrosine-phenylalanine motif

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ina Thormählen
    • 1
  • Belén Naranjo
    • 2
  • José Abraham Trujillo-Hernandez
    • 3
    • 4
  • Jean-Philippe Reichheld
    • 3
    • 4
  • Francisco Javier Cejudo
    • 5
  • Peter Geigenberger
    • 1
  1. 1.Fakultät für Biologie – PflanzenmetabolismusLudwig-Maximilians-Universität MünchenMunichGermany
  2. 2.Fakultät für Biologie – Molekularbiologie der PflanzenLudwig-Maximilians-Universität MünchenMunich Germany
  3. 3.Laboratoire Génome et Développement des PlantesUniversité de Perpignan Via DomitiaPerpignanFrance
  4. 4.Laboratoire Génome et Développement des PlantesCentre National de la Recherche ScientifiqueParisFrance
  5. 5.Instituto de Bioquímica Vegetal y FotosíntesisUniversidad de Sevilla and CSICSevillaSpain

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