Image Watermarking Algorithm Based on the Code Division Multiple Access Technique

  • Fan Zhang
  • Guosheng Yang
  • Xianxing Liu
  • Xinhong Zhang
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4252)


A multiple watermarking algorithm based on the Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) spread spectrum technique is presented. Multiple copyright identifiers are convolutional encoded and block interleaved, and the orthogonal Gold sequences are used to spread spectrum of the copyright messages. The CDMA encoded copyright messages are embedded into the wavelet sub-bands. As a blind watermarking algorithm, the copyright identifiers are extracted without the original image. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm improves the detection BER, and the multiple copyright identifiers have preferable robustness and invisibility.


Discrete Wavelet Transform Watermark Scheme Convolutional Code JPEG Compression Watermark Algorithm 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ruanaidh, J., Pun, T.: Rotation, scale and t translation invariant spread spectrum digital image watermarking. Signal Processing 66(3), 303–317 (1998)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Silvestre, G., Dowling, W.: Embedding data in digital images using cdma techniques. In: Proceedings of 2000 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, Vancouver, Canada, vol. 1, pp. 589–592 (2000)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kohda, T., Ookubo, Y., Shinokura, K.: Digital watermarking through CDMA channels using spread spectrum techniques. In: Proceedings of IEEE 6th International Symposium on Spread Spectrum Techniques and Applications, Parsippany, NJ, USA, vol. 2, pp. 671–674 (2000)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Vassaux, B., Bas, P., Chassery, J.: A new CDMA technique for digital image watermarking enhancing capacity of insertion and robustness. In: Proceedings of 2001 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, Thessalonica, Greece, vol. 3, pp. 983–986 (2001)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fang, Y., Wu, S., Huang, J.: DWT-Based CDMA Watermarking Resist Cropping. ACTA Automatica Sinica 30(3), 442–448 (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fang, Y., Huang, J., Shi, Y.: Image watermarking algorithm applying CDMA. In: Proceedings of the 2003 International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, vol. 2, pp. 948–951 (2003)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zou, F., Lu, Z., Ling, H.: A Multiple Watermarking Algorithm Based on CDMA. In: International Multimedia Conference archive Proceedings of the 12th annual ACM international conference on Multimedia, pp. 424–427 (2004)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hartung, F., Girod, B.: Watermarking of uncompressed and compressed video. Signal Processing 66, 283–301 (1998)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mobasseri, B.: Exploring CDMA for watermarking of digital video. In: Proceedings of the SPIE 1999 Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents, San Jose, CA, USA. SPIE, vol. 3657, pp. 96–102 (1999)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cox, I., Kilian, J., Shamoon, T.: spectrum watermarking for multimedia. IEEE Trans on Image Processing 6, 1673–1687 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hsu, C., Wu, J.: Hidden digital watermarks in images. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 8(1), 58–68 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wong, P., Au, O., Yeung, Y.: A novels blind multiple watermarking techniques for images. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems 13(8), 813–830 (2003)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Raval, M., Priti, P.: Discrete wavelet transform based multiple watermarking schemes. In: 2003 Conference on Convergent Technologies for Asia-Pacific Region, vol. 3, pp. 935–938 (2003)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lu, C., Liao, H.: Multipurpose watermarking for image authentication and protection. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 10, 1579–1592 (2001)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Watson, A., Yang, G.: Visibility of wavelet quantization noise. IEEE Transactions on image Processing 6(8), 1164–1174 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fan Zhang
    • 1
  • Guosheng Yang
    • 1
  • Xianxing Liu
    • 1
  • Xinhong Zhang
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Advanced Control and Intelligent Information ProcessingHenan UniversityKaifengP.R. China
  2. 2.Department of Computer CenterHenan UniversityKaifengP.R. China

Personalised recommendations