Asymmetric Wars Between Immune Agents and Virus Agents: Approaches of Generalists Versus Specialists

  • Yoshiteru Ishida
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4252)


This paper reports a multiagent approach to a basic model inspired by the asymmetric war between HIV and T-cells. The basic model focuses on the asymmetric interaction between two types of agents: Virus Agents (abstracted from HIV) and Immune Agents (abstracted from T-cells). Virus Agents and Immune Agents, characterized respectively as “generalists” and “specialists”, may be compared with asymmetric wars between computer viruses and antivirus programs, between guerrillas and armed forces, and so on. It has been proposed that antigenic diversity determines the war between HIV and T-cells. We also formalize the diversity of “generalists” that would determine whether generalists or specialists won. The multiagent simulations also suggest that there is a diversity threshold over which the specialist cannot control the generalist. In multiagent approaches, two spaces, Agent Space and Shape Space, are used to observe not only the spatial distribution of agent populations but also the distribution of antigenic profiles expressed by a bit string.


Reproduction Rate Shape Space Diversity Threshold Virus Agent Survival Fraction 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshiteru Ishida
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Knowledge-Based Information EngineeringToyohashi University of TechnologyToyohashiJapan

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