Research on User-Centered Design and Recognition Pen Gestures

  • Feng Tian
  • Tiegang Cheng
  • Hongan Wang
  • Guozhong Dai
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4035)


Pen-based user interface has become a hot research field in recent years. Pen gesture plays an important role in Pen-based user interfaces. But it’s difficult for UI designers to design, and for users to learn and use. In this purpose, we performed a research on user-centered design and recognition pen gestures. We performed a survey of 100 pen gestures in twelve famous pen-bases systems to find problems of pen gestures currently used. And we conducted a questionnaire to evaluate the matching degree between commands and pen gestures to discover the characteristics that a good pen gestures should have. Then cognition theories were applied to analyze the advantages of those characteristics in helping improving the learnability of pen gestures. From these, we analyzed the pen gesture recognition effect and presented some improvements on features selection in recognition algorithm of pen gestures. Finally we used a couple of psychology experiments to evaluate twelve pen gestures designed based on the research. It shows those gestures is better for user to learn and use. Research results of this paper can be used for designer as a primary principle to design pen gestures in pen-based systems.


Recognition Algorithm Gesture Recognition Matching Degree Dual Code Theory Gesture Category 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Pedersen, E.R., McCall, K., Moran, T.P., Halasz, F.G.: Tivoli: An Electronic Whiteboard for Informal Workgroup Meetings. In: Proceedings of the ACM INTERCHI 1993 Conference on Human in Computing Systems, pp. 391–398 (1993)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Elrod, S., Bruce, R., et al.: Liveboard: a large interactive display supporting group meetings, presentations, and remote collaboration. In: Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: CHI 1992, Monterey, CA, May 3-7, 1992, pp. 599–607 (1992)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Landay, J.A., Myers, B.A.: Interactive Sketching for the Early Stages of User Interface Design. In: Proceeding of CHI 1995, pp. 45–50 (1995)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lin, J., Newman, M., Hong, J., Landay, J.: DENIM: Finding a Tighter Fit Between Tools and Practice for Web Site Design. In: CHI Letters: Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI 2000, vol. 2(1), pp. 510–517 (2000)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gross, M.D.: The Electronic Cocktail Napkin. A computational environment for working with design diagrams. Design Studies 17(1), 53–69 (1996)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mynatt, E.D., Igarashi, T., Edwards, W.K., LaMarca, A.: Flatland: new dimensions in office whiteboards. In: Proceedings of CHI 1999 Human Factors in Computing, Pittsburgh, PA, May 15-20, pp. 346–353. ACM, New York (1999)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Abowd, G.D., et al.: Teaching and learning as multimedia authoring: the classroom 2000 project. In: Proceedings of the fourth ACM international conference on Multimedia, Boston, Massachusetts, United States, November 18-22, pp. 187–198 (1996)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Alvarado, C., Davis, R.: Resolving ambiguities to create a natural sketch based interface. In: Proceedings of IJCAI-2001 (August 2001)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Igarashi, T., Matsuoka, S., Tanaka, H.: Teddy: a sketching interface for 3D freeform design. In: Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 409–416 (1999)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
  11. 11.
  12. 12.
    Rubine, D.: Specifying gestures by example. In: Computer Graphics. ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 329–337. Addison Wesley, Reading (1991)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rubine, D.: Combining gestures and direct manipulation. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems, pp. 659–660 (1992)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Long Jr., A.C., Landay, J.A., Rowe, L.A.: PDA gesture use in practice: Insights for designers of pen-based user interfaces. Tech. Rep. UCB//CSD-97-976, U.C. Berkeley (1997),
  15. 15.
    Long Jr., A.C.: Quill: A gesture design tool for pen-based user interfaces [Ph.D. Thesis]. Berkeley: University of California (2001)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Paivio, A.: Mental representations: A dual coding approach. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1986)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhao, R., Kaufmann, H.-J., Kern, T., Miiller, W.: Pen-based interfaces in engineering environments. In: Anzai, Y., Ogawa, K., Mori, H. (eds.) International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics. Information Processing Society of Japan and others), July 1995, vol. 20B, pp. 531–536. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam (1995)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tandler, P., Prante, T.: Using Incremental Gesture Recognition to Provide Immediate Feedback while Drawing Pen Gestures. UIST, 18–25 (2001)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Long Jr., A.C., Landay, J.A., Rowe, L.A.: Implications for a gesture design tool. In: Human Factors in Computing Systems (SIGCHI Proc.), pp. 40–47. ACM Press, New York (1999)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kramer, A.: Classifying Two Dimensional Gestures in Interactive Systems. In: Wachsmuth, I., Fröhlich, M. (eds.) GW 1997. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 1371, pp. 37–48. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Long Jr., A.C., Landay, J.A., Rowe, L.A., Michiels, J.: Visual similarity of pen Gestures. In: Proc. of the Human Factors in Computing Systems SIGCHI 2000, vol. 2(1), pp. 360–367 (2000)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Newton, Apple Computer, Inc.,
  23. 23.
    Palm Computing,
  24. 24.
    Nicholson, M., Vickers, P.: Pen-Based Gestures: An Approach to Reducing Screen Clutter in Mobile Computing. In: Brewster, S.A., Dunlop, M.D. (eds.) Mobile HCI 2004. LNCS, vol. 3160, pp. 320–324. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cohen, P.R., Johnston, M., McGee, D., Oviatt, S.L., Pittman, J., Smith, I.A., Chen, L., Clow, J.: QuickSet: Multimodal Interaction for Distributed Applications. ACM Multimedia, 31–40 (1997)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Landay, J.A., Myers, B.A.: Sketching Interfaces: Toward More Human Interface Design. IEEE Computer 34(3), 56–64 (2001)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chatty, S., Lecoanet, P.: Pen computing for air traffic control. In: Human Factors in Computing Systems (SIGCHI Proceedings), pp. 87–94. ACM, Addison-Wesley, New York (1996)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bimber, O., Miguel Encarnac, L., Stork, A.: A multi-layered architecture for sketch-based interaction within virtual environments. Computers & Graphics 24, 851–867 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
  30. 30.
    Norman, D., Bobrow, D.: On Data-Limited and Resource-Limited Processes. Cognitive Psychology 7, 44–64 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Eysenck, M., Keane, M.T.: Cognition Psychology: A Student’s Handbook, 4th edn. Psychology Press (2000)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Theodoridis, S.: Konstantinos Koutroumbas, Pattern Recognition, 2nd edn. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam (2004)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dljda, R., Hart, P.: Pattern Classification and Scene Analysis. Interscience. Wiley Interscience, Chichester (1973)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cooper, A.: About Face 2.0: The Essentials of Interaction Design. John Wiley & Sons Inc., Chichester (2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Feng Tian
    • 1
  • Tiegang Cheng
    • 1
  • Hongan Wang
    • 1
  • Guozhong Dai
    • 1
  1. 1.Intelligence Engineering Laboratory, Institute of SoftwareChinese Academy of Sciences 

Personalised recommendations