A Novel Data Hiding Algorithm Using Normal Vectors of 3D Model

  • Chung-Hsien Chang
  • Chung-Ming Wang
  • Yuan-Yu Tsai
  • Yu-Ming Cheng
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4035)


This paper presents a novel data hiding algorithm for 3D polygonal models whose vertices have given normal vectors. The key idea of our algorithm is to embed messages by adjusting the normal vector of a vertex according to the pivot vector. All vertices in a 3D model can be embedded with multiple-bit payloads by using multiple pivot vectors. The distortion is measured by the angle between the adjusted normal vector and the original normal vector to distortion. A distortion coefficient is also introduced to control the distortion rate during the embedding process. Experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm can achieve high data capacity (up to 12 bits per normal vector), and is robust against rotation, translation, and uniform scaling attacks.


Normal Vector Cover Model Data Hiding Distortion Rate Polygonal Mesh 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Aspert, N., Drelie, E., Maret, Y., Ebrahimi, T.: Steganography for Three- Dimensional Polygonal Meshes. In: SPIE 47th Annual Meeting, pp. 705–708 (2002)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Benedens, O.: Geometry-Based Watermarking of 3D Models. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 19(1), 46–55 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cayre, F., Macq, B.: Data Hiding on 3D Triangle Meshes. IEEE Trans. on Signal Processing 51, 939–949 (2003)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cotting, D., Weyrich, T., Payly, M., Gross, M.: Robust Watermarking of Point-Sampled Geometry. In: Proc. of International Conference on Shape Modeling and Applications 2004, pp. 233–242 (2004)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Katzenbeisser, S., Petitcolas, F.A.P.: Information Hiding Techniques for Steganography and Digital Watermarking, Artech House London (2000)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Maret, Y., Ebrahimi, T.: Data Hiding on 3D Polygonal Meshes. In: Proc. of the Multimedia and Security Workshop 2004, pp. 68–74 (2004)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ohbuchi, R., Mukaiyama, A., Takahashi, S.: A Frequency-Domain Approach to Watermarking 3D Shapes. Computer Graphics Forum 1(3), 373–382 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Petitcolas, F.A.P., Anderson, R.J., Kuhn, M.G.: Information Hiding - A Survey. In: Proc. of the IEEE, vol. 87(7), pp. 1062–1078 (1999); (Special Issue on Protection of Multimedia Content)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wang, C.M., Cheng, Y.M.: An Efficient Information Hiding Algorithm for Polygon Models. Computer Graphics Forum 24(3), 591–600 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wang, C.M., Wang, P.C.: Steganography on Point-Sampled Geometry. Computers & Graphics (to appear, 2006)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wagner, M.: Robust Watermarking of Polygonal Meshes. In: Proc. of Geometric Modeling and Processing 2000, pp. 201–208 (2000)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chung-Hsien Chang
    • 1
  • Chung-Ming Wang
    • 1
  • Yuan-Yu Tsai
    • 1
  • Yu-Ming Cheng
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Computer ScienceNational Chung Hsing UniversityTaichungTaiwan

Personalised recommendations