Authoring Adaptive Learning Designs Using IMS LD

  • Adriana J. Berlanga
  • Francisco J. García
  • Jorge Carabias
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4018)


Adaptive Educational Hypermedia Systems have the potential to deliver instruction tailored to the characteristics of each student. However, despite many years of research in the area, these systems have been used only in a few real learning situations. Reasons for this include their use of proprietary semantics in the definition of adaptivity and educational elements, and their lack of interoperation among courses and applications. We claim that an option to overcome these issues is to annotate adaptive rules, techniques, and learning elements using a common notational method, the IMS Learning Design (IMS LD). This paper presents a novel approach to define adaptive learning designs and, particularly, how adaptive hypermedia techniques and adaptive rules can be modelled by means of IMS LD.


Learning Activity Personalization Property Expert User Authoring Tool Adaptive Technique 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Berlanga, A.J., García, F.J.: Authoring Tools for Adaptive Learning Designs in ComputerBased Education. In: Proc. of Latin American Conference on HumanComputer Interaction. CLIHC 2005, Cuernavaca, México, vol. 124, pp. 190–201. ACM Press, New York (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Berlanga, A. J., García, F. J.: IMS LD reusable elements for adaptive learning designs. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 11 (2005) (Advances in Learning Design. Tattersall, C., Koper, R.(eds.)) (special Issue) Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Berlanga, A.J., García, F.J.: Modelling Adaptive Navigation Support Techniques Using the IMS Learning Design Specification. In: Reich, S., Tzagarakis, M. (eds.) Proc. of Hypertext and Hypermedia. HT 2005, Salzburg, Austria, pp. 148–150. ACM Press, New York (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brusilovsky, P.: Adaptive Hypermedia. User Modeling and User Adapted Interaction 11, 87–110 (2001)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    CopperCore: SourceForge site (2005),
  6. 6.
    Cristea, A.I., De Mooij, A.: LAOS: Layered WWW AHS Authoring Model with Algebraic Operators. In: Proc. of 12th World Wide Web Conf. WWW 2003, Alternate Paper Tracks, Budapest, Hungary (2003)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cristea, A.I., Verschoor, M.: The LAG Grammar for Authoring the Adaptive Web. In: Proc. of International Conference on Information Technology, ITCC 2004, Las Vegas, USA, pp. 382–386. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    De Bra, P., Houben, G.J., Wu, H.: AHAM: A Dexter-based Reference Model for Adaptive Hypermedia. In: Proc. Hypertext and Hypermedia. HT 1999, pp. 147–156. ACM Press, New York (1999)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Felder, R.M., Silverman, L.K.: Learning and Teaching Styles in Engineering Education. Engineering Education 78(7), 674–681 (1988)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    García, F.J., García, J.: Educational Hypermedia Resources Facilitator. Computers & Education 3, 301–325 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    IMS LD: Learning Design specification v1(2003),
  12. 12.
    IMS LOM: Learning Resource Metadata specification v1.1.2 (2001),
  13. 13.
    Kobsa, A., Koenemann, J., Pohl, W.: Personalized Hypermedia Presentation Techniques for Improving Online Customer Relationships. The Knowledge Engineering Review 16(2), 111–155 (2001)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Koper, R.: An Introduction to Learning Design, in Learning Design. In: Koper, R., Tattersall, C. (eds.) A Handbook on Modelling and Delivering Networked Education and Training, pp. 3–20. Springer, The Netherlands (2005)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Koper, R.: Use of the Semantic Web to Solve Some Basic Problems in Education. Journal of Interactive Media in Education. Special Issue on Reusing Online Resources 6 (2004)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Koper, R., Burgos, D.: Developing Advanced Units of Learning Using Learning Design Level B. International Journal on Advanced Technology for Learning 2(3) (2005)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Murray, T.: Design Tradeoffs in Usability and Power for Advanced Educational Software Authoring Tools. Educational Technology 44(5), 10–16 (2004)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Towle, B., Halm, M.: Design Adaptive Learning Environments with Learning Design. In: Koper, R., Tattersall, C. (eds.) Learning Design. A Handbook on Modelling and Delivering Networked Education and Training, pp. 215–226. Springer, The Netherlands (2005)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Van Rosmalen, P., Boticario, J.: Using Learning Design to Support Design and Runtime Adaptation. In: Koper, R., Tattersall, C. (eds.) Learning Design. A Handbook on Modelling and Delivering Networked Education and Training, pp. 291–301. Springer, The Netherlands, (2005)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adriana J. Berlanga
    • 1
  • Francisco J. García
    • 1
  • Jorge Carabias
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of SalamancaSpain
  2. 2.Clay Formación InternacionalSalamancaSpain

Personalised recommendations