Proximity-Aware Superpeer Overlay Topologies

  • Gian Paolo Jesi
  • Alberto Montresor
  • Ozalp Babaoglu
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3996)


The concept of superpeer has been introduced to improve the performance of popular P2P applications. A superpeer is a “powerful” node that acts as a server for a set of clients, and as an equal with respect to other superpeers. By exploiting heterogeneity, the superpeer paradigm can lead to improved efficiency, without compromising the decentralized nature of P2P networks. The main issues in the construction of superpeer-based overlays are the selection of superpeers, and the association between superpeers and clients. Generally, superpeers are either run voluntarily (without an explicit selection process), or chosen among the “best” nodes in the network, for example those with the most abondant resources, such as bandwidth or storage. In several contexts, however, shared resources are not the only factor; latency between clients and superpeers may play an important role, for example in online games. This paper presents SG-2, a novel protocol for building and maintaining a proximity-aware superpeer topology. SG-2 uses a gossip-based protocol to spread messages to nearby nodes and a biology-inspired task allocation mechanism to promote the “best” nodes to superpeer status. The paper includes extensive simulation experiments to prove the efficiency, scalability and robustness of SG-2.


Task Allocation Distribute Hash Table Virtual Space Online Game Powerful Node 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Adler, M., Kumar, R., Ross, K.W., Rubenstein, D., Suel, T., Yao, D.D.: Optimal peer selection for p2p downloading and streaming. In: Proceedings of IEEE Infocom, Miami, FL (March 2005)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baset, S., Schulzrinne, H.: An analysis of the skype peer-to-peer internet telephony protocol. Technical Report CUCS-039-04, Columbia University, Department of Computer Science, New York, NY (September 2004)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bettner, P., Terrano, M.: 1500 Archers on a 28.8: Network Programming in Age Of Empires and Beyond. In: Proc. of the GDC 2001 (March 2001)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bonabeau, E., Dorigo, M., Theraulaz, G.: Swarm intelligence: from natural to artificial systems. Oxford University Press, Inc., New York (1999)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Castro, M., Druschel, P., Hu, Y.C., Rowstron, A.: Exploiting network proximity in distributed hash tables. In: Babaoglu, O., Birman, K., Marzullo, K. (eds.) International Workshop on Future Directions in Distributed Computing (FuDiCo), pp. 52–55 (June 2002)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Costa, M., Castro, M., Rowstron, A., Key, P.: Pic: Practical internet coordinates for distance estimation. In: Proc. of ICDCS 2004 (2004)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dabek, F., Cox, R., Kaashoek, F., Morris, R.: Vivaldi: A decentralized network coordinate system. In: Proc. of the SIGCOMM 2004, Portland, Oregon (August 2004)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Eugster, P., Guerraoui, R., Handurukande, S.B., Kermarrec, A.-M., Massoulié, L.: Lightweight probabilistic broadcast. ACM Transactions on Computer Systems 21(4), 341–374 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fasttrack Home Page,
  10. 10.
    Francis, P., Jamin, S., Jin, C., Jin, Y., Paxson, V., Raz, D., Shavitt, Y., Zhang, L.: IDMaps: a global internet host distance estimation service. In: Proc. of IEEE Infocom 1999 (1999)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gautier, L., Diot, C.: MiMaze, a Multiuser Game on the Internet (1997),
  12. 12.
    Gnutella web site,
  13. 13.
    Jelasity, M., Guerraoui, R., Kermarrec, A.-M., van Steen, M.: The peer sampling service: Experimental evaluation of unstructured gossip-based implementations. In: Jacobsen, H.-A. (ed.) Middleware 2004. LNCS, vol. 3231, pp. 79–98. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jelasity, M., Kowalczyk, W., van Steen, M.: Newscast computing. Technical Report IR-CS-006, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Computer Science, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (November 2003)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jelasity, M., Montresor, A., Babaoglu, O.: Gossip-based aggregation in large dynamic networks. ACM Trans. Comput. Syst. 23(1), 219–252 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lehman, L., Lerman, S.: Pcoord: network position estimation using peer-to-peer measurements. In: Proc. of the 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications (NCA 2004) (2004)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Leibowitz, N., Ripeanu, M., Wierzbicki, A.: Deconstructing the kazaa network (2003)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Montresor, A.: A Robust Protocol for Building Superpeer Overlay Topologies. In: Proc. of the 4th Int. Conf. on Peer-to-Peer Computing, Zurich, Switzerland. IEEE, Los Alamitos (to appear, 2004)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ng, T., Zhang, H.: Predicting internet network distance with coordinates-based approaches. In: Proc. of IEEE Infocom (2002)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Peercast P2P Radio,
  21. 21.
    Peersim Peer-to-Peer Simulator,
  22. 22.
    Rowstron, A., Druschel, P.: Pastry: Scalable, distributed object location and routing for large-scale peer-to-peer systems. In: Guerraoui, R. (ed.) Middleware 2001. LNCS, vol. 2218, pp. 329–350. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sheldon, N., Girard, E., Borg, S., Claypool, M., Agu, E.: The effect of latency on user performance in Warcraft 3. In: Proc. of the 2nd Workshop on Network and System Support for Games, pp. 3–14. ACM Press, New York (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Singh, A., Haahr, M.: Creating an adaptive network of hubs using schelling’s model. Commun. ACM 49(3), 69–73 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Skype: Free internet telephony that just works,
  26. 26.
    Unreal networking protocol notes by tim sweeney,
  27. 27.
    Yang, B., Garcia-Molina, H.: Designing a super-peer network. In: IEEE International Conference on Data Engineering (2003),
  28. 28.
    Zanikolas, S., Sakellariou, R.: Towards a monitoring framework for worldwide grid information services. In: Danelutto, M., Vanneschi, M., Laforenza, D. (eds.) Euro-Par 2004. LNCS, vol. 3149, pp. 417–422. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gian Paolo Jesi
    • 1
  • Alberto Montresor
    • 2
  • Ozalp Babaoglu
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Computer ScienceUniversity of BolognaItaly
  2. 2.Dept. of Information and Communication TechnologyUniversity of TrentoItaly

Personalised recommendations