Advertisement

A Realistic Architecture for the Semantic Web

  • Michael Kifer
  • Jos de Bruijn
  • Harold Boley
  • Dieter Fensel
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3791)

Abstract

In this paper we argue that a realistic architecture for the Semantic Web must be based on multiple independent, but interoperable, stacks of languages. In particular, we argue that there is a very important class of rule-based languages, with over thirty years of history and experience, which cannot be layered on top of OWL and must be included in the Semantic Web architecture alongside with the stack of OWL-based languages. The class of languages we are after includes rules in the Logic Programming style, which support default negation. We briefly survey the logical foundations of these languages and then discuss an interoperability framework in which such languages can co-exist with OWL and its extensions.

Keywords

Logic Program Resource Description Framework Logic Programming Description Logic Atomic Formula 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [ABdB+05]
    Angele, J., Boley, H., de Bruijn, J., Fensel, D., Hitzler, P., Kifer, M., Krummenacher, R., Lausen, H., Polleres, A., Studer, R.: Web rule language (wrl), Technical Report (June 2005)Google Scholar
  2. [ABW88]
    Apt, K.R., Blair, H.A., Walker, A.: Towards a theory of declarative knowledge. In: Foundations of Deductive Databases and Logic Programming, pp. 89–148. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Los Altos (1988)Google Scholar
  3. [BBB+05]
    Battle, S., Bernstein, A., Boley, H., Grosof, B., Gruninger, M., Hull, R., Kifer, M., Martin, D., McIlraith, S., McGuinness, D., Su, J., Tabet, S.: Swsl-rules: A rule language for the semantic web, Technical Report (July 2005)Google Scholar
  4. [BL04]
    Berners-Lee, T.: Primer: Getting into RDF & Semantic Web using N3 (2004), http://www.w3.org/2000/10/swap/Primer.html
  5. [Bol96]
    Boley, H.: Knowledge Bases in the World Wide Web: A Challenge for Logic Programming. In: Tarau, P., Davison, A., Bosschere, K.D., Hermenegildo, M. (eds.) Proc. JICSLP 1996 Post-Conference Workshop on Logic Programming Tools for INTERNET Applications, COMPULOG-NET, Bonn. Revised versions in: International Workshop Intelligent Information Integration, pp. 139–147 (September 1997)Google Scholar
  6. [BTW01]
    Boley, H., Tabet, S., Wagner, G.: Design Rationale of RuleML: A Markup Language for Semantic Web Rules. In: Proc. Semantic Web Working Symposium (SWWS 2001), pp. 381–401. Stanford University, Stanford (July/August 2001)Google Scholar
  7. [CKW93]
    Chen, W., Kifer, M., Warren, D.S.: HiLog: A foundation for higherorder logic programming  15(3), 187–230 (1993)Google Scholar
  8. [Cla78]
    Clark, K.L.: Logic and Data Bases. In: Negation as Failure, pp. 293–322. Plenum Press, New york (1978)Google Scholar
  9. [DBSA98]
    Decker, S., Brickley, D., Saarela, J., Angele, J.: A query and inference service for RDF. In: QL 1998 - The Query Languages Workshop, W3C Workshop (1998)Google Scholar
  10. [DLNS98]
    Donini, F.M., Lenzerini, M., Nardi, D., Schaerf, A.: AL-log: Integrating datalog and description logics. Journal of Intelligent Information Systems 10(3), 227–252 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [DS04]
    Dean, M., Schreiber, G. (eds.): OWL Web Ontology Language Reference (2004) W3C Recommendation (February 10, 2004)Google Scholar
  12. [ELST04]
    Eiter, T., Lukasiewicz, T., Schindlauer, R., Tompits, H.: Combining answer set programming with description logics for the semantic web. In: Proc. of the International Conference of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, KR 2004 (2004)Google Scholar
  13. [FDES98]
    Fensel, D., Decker, S., Erdmann, M., Studer, R.: Ontobroker: The very high idea. In: Proceedings of the 11th International FLAIRS Conference (FLAIRS 1998), Sanibel Island, Florida, USA, pp. 131–135 (1998)Google Scholar
  14. [GHVD03]
    Grosof, B.N., Horrocks, I., Volz, R., Decker, S.: Description logic programs: Combining logic programs with description logic. In: 12th International Conference on the World Wide Web, WWW-2003 (May 2003)Google Scholar
  15. [GL88]
    Gelfond, M., Lifschitz, V.: The stable model semantics for logic programming. In: Kowalski, R.A., Bowen, K. (eds.) Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Logic Programming, pp. 1070–1080. MIT Press, Cambridge (1988)Google Scholar
  16. [GL91]
    Gelfond, M., Lifschitz, V.: Classical negation in logic programs and disjunctive databases. New Generation Computing 9(3/4), 365–386 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [Gro99]
    Grosof, B.N.: A courteous compiler from generalized courteous logic programs to ordinary logic programs. Technical Report RC 21472, IBM (July 1999)Google Scholar
  18. [GRS91]
    Van Gelder, A., Ross, K., Schlipf, J.S.: The well-founded semantics for general logic programs. Journal of the ACM 38(3), 620–650 (1991)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. [Hay04]
    Hayes, P.: RDF semantics. Technical report, W3C, 2004. W3C Recommendation (February 10, 2004), http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-mt/
  20. [HHL03]
    Heflin, J., Hendler, J., Luke, S.: SHOE: A Blueprint for the Semantic Web. MIT Press, Cambridge (2003)Google Scholar
  21. [HPPSH05]
    Horrocks, I., Parsia, B., Patel-Schneider, P., Hendler, J.: Semantic web architecture: Stack or two towers? In: Third Workshop on Principles and Practice of Semantic Web Reasoning, Dagstuhl, Germany (September 2005)Google Scholar
  22. [HPSB+04]
    Horrocks, I., Patel-Schneider, P.F., Boley, H., Tabet, S., Grosof, B., Dean, M.: SWRL: A semantic web rule language combining OWL and RuleML. Member submission ,W3C (May 21, 2004), Available from http://www.w3.org/Submission/SWRL//
  23. [HPSvH03]
    Horrocks, I., Patel-Schneider, P.F., van Harmelen, F.: From SHIQ and RDF to OWL: The making of a web ontology language. Journal of Web Semantics 1(1), 7–26 (2003)Google Scholar
  24. [Kif05]
    Kifer, M.: Nonmonotonic reasoning in FLORA-2. In: Baral, C., Greco, G., Leone, N., Terracina, G. (eds.) LPNMR 2005. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 3662, pp. 1–12. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [KLW95]
    Kifer, M., Lausen, G., Wu, J.: Logical foundations of object-oriented and frame-based languages. Journal of the ACM 42, 741–843 (1995)zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  26. [Llo87]
    Lloyd, J.W.: Foundations of Logic Programming. Springer, Heidelberg (1987)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  27. [LS99]
    Lassila, O., Swick, R.R.: Resource Description Framework (RDF) Model and Syntax Specification. Recommendation REC-rdfsyntax-19990222, W3C (February 1999)Google Scholar
  28. [MS98]
    Marchiori, M., Saarela, J.: Query + metadata + logic = metalog. In: QL 1998 - The Query Languages Workshop, W3C Workshop (1998)Google Scholar
  29. [MW88]
    Maier, D., Warren, D.S.: Computing with Logic: Logic Programming with Prolog. Benjamin-Cummings, Menlo Park (1988)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  30. [Ont]
    Ontoprise, GmbH. Ontobroker, http://www.ontoprise.com/
  31. [SD02]
    Sintek, M., Decker, S.: TRIPLE – A Query, Inference, and Transformation Language for the Semantic Web. In: 1st International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2002), Sardinia, Italy (June 2002)Google Scholar
  32. [Sho87]
    Shoham, Y.: Nonmonotonic logics: meaning and utility. In: Proc. 10th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pp. 388–393. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco (1987)Google Scholar
  33. [YK02]
    Yang, G., Kifer, M.: Well-founded optimism: Inheritance in frame-based knowledge bases. In: Meersman, R., Tari, Z., et al. (eds.) CoopIS 2002, DOA 2002, and ODBASE 2002. LNCS, vol. 2519, Springer, Heidelberg (2002)Google Scholar
  34. [YK03]
    Yang, G., Kifer, M.: Reasoning about Anonymous Resources and Meta Statements on the Semantic Web. In: Spaccapietra, S., March, S., Aberer, K. (eds.) Journal on Data Semantics I. LNCS, vol. 2800, pp. 69–97. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [YKZ03]
    Yang, G., Kifer, M., Zhao, C.: FLORA-2: A rule-based knowledge representation and inference infrastructure for the Semantic Web. In: Meersman, R., Tari, Z., et al. (eds.) CoopIS 2002, DOA 2002, and ODBASE 2002. LNCS, vol. 2519, Springer, Heidelberg (2002)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Kifer
    • 1
  • Jos de Bruijn
    • 2
  • Harold Boley
    • 3
  • Dieter Fensel
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceState University of New York at Stony BrookStony BrookUSA
  2. 2.Digital Enterprise Research Institute (DERI)University of Innsbruck, Austria, National University of IrelandGalway
  3. 3.Institute for Information Technology – e-BusinessNational Research Council of CanadaFrederictonCanada

Personalised recommendations