Nesting OpenMP in MPI to Implement a Hybrid Communication Method of Parallel Simulated Annealing on a Cluster of SMP Nodes
Concurrent computing can be applied to heuristic methods for combinatorial optimization to shorten computation time, or equivalently, to improve the solution when time is fixed. This paper presents several communication schemes for parallel simulated annealing, focusing on a combination of OpenMP nested in MPI. Strikingly, even though many publications devoted to either intensive or sparse communication methods in parallel simulated annealing exist, only a few comparisons of methods from these two distinctive families have been published; the present paper aspires to partially fill this gap. Implementation for VRPTW—a generally accepted benchmark problem—is used to illustrate the advantages of the hybrid method over others tested.
KeywordsParallel processing MPI OpenMP communication simulated annealing
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Aarts, E., de Bont, F., Habers, J., van Laarhoven, P.: Parallel implementations of the statistical cooling algorithm. Integration, the VLSI journal, 209–238 (1986)Google Scholar
- 2.Aarts, E., Korst, J.: Simulated Annealing and Boltzman Machines. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester (1989)Google Scholar
- 5.Czarnas, P.: Traveling Salesman Problem With Time Windows. Solution by Simulated Annealing. MSc thesis (in Polish), Uniwersytet Wrocławski, Wrocław (2001)Google Scholar
- 6.Czech, Z.J., Czarnas, P.: Parallel simulated annealing for the vehicle routing problem with time windows. In: 10th Euromicro Workshop on Parallel, Distributed and Network-based Processing, Canary Islands–Spain, pp. 376–383 (2002)Google Scholar
- 7.Debudaj-Grabysz, A., Czech, Z.J.: A concurrent implementation of simulated annealing and its application to the VRPTW optimization problem. In: Juhasz, Z., Kacsuk, P., Kranzlmuller, D. (eds.) Distributed and Parallel Systems. Cluster and Grid Computing, vol. 777, pp. 201–209. Kluwer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science, Dordrecht (2004)Google Scholar
- 10.Lee, F.A.: Parallel Simulated Annealing on a Message-Passing Multi-Computer. PhD thesis, Utah State University (1995)Google Scholar
- 12.OpenMP C and C++ API 2.0 Specification, from www.openmp.org/specs/
- 15.Salamon, P., Sibani, P., Frost, R.: Facts, Conjectures and Improvements for Simulated Annealing. SIAM (2002)Google Scholar
- 16.Tan, K.C., Lee, L.H., Zhu, Q.L., Ou, K.: Heuristic methods for vehicle routing problem with time windows. In: Artificial Intelligent in Engineering, pp. 281–295. Elsevier, Amsterdam (2001)Google Scholar
- 17.Zomaya, A.Y., Kazman, R.: Simulated Annealing Techniques. In: Algorithms and Theory of Computation Handbook. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton (1999)Google Scholar