Correlations Between Digital Tools and Humans Cognitive Processes

  • Lucy García
  • Miguel Nussbaum
  • Joselyn Bolton
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3597)


Chat is one of the Internet’s services that have had a particularly strong influence on young people, and its effects on their skills development is worthy of investigation. This study focuses on the possible consequences of the use of Chat on cognitive processes. More specifically, it evaluates the impact of frequent Chat use on the development of memory and on cognitive style. This research, exploratory in nature, began with an instrument for classifying 125 students in 5th to 8th grade at schools in Chile, according to their Chat use. We then applied a memory and attention test based on the Digit Span Subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, followed by a Group Embedded Figures Test to evaluate cognitive styles. The results show that there are significant differences on both tests between frequent and infrequent users of Chat services.


Cognitive Style Frequent User Human Cognitive Process Digital Tool Perception Test 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Baddeley, A.D., Hitch, G.J.: Working Memory. In: Bower, G.A. (ed.) Recent Advances in Learning and Motivation, vol. 8. Academic Press, New York (1974)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Castells, M.: La Era de la Información: Economía, Sociedad y Cultura. Alianza, Madrid (2000)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dimaggio, P., Hargittai, E., Russell, W., Robinson, J.P.: Social Implications of the Internet. Annual Review of Sociology 27, 307–336 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fernández, F., Goldenberg, S.: WIP Chile: Scanning the Reality of Internet in Chile. Revista Universitaria 84, 14–16 (2004)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Green, S., Bavelier, D.: Action Video Game Modifies Visual Selective Attention. Nature 423, 534–537 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Grinter, R., Palen, L.: Instant Messaging in Teen Life. In: Conference Proceedings on Computer Supported Cooperative Work - CSCW. Association For Computing Machinery. ACM, New Orleans (2002)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    International Telecomunication Union: Internet Indicators: Hosts, Users and Number of PCs. Geneva (2004), http://www.Itu.Int/Itu-d/Ict/Statistics/Index.html
  8. 8.
    Isaacs, E., Kamm, C., Schiano, J., Walendowski, A., Whittaker, S.: Characterizing Instant Messaging from Recorded Logs. In: Conference Proceedings on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Association for Computing Machinery - ACM, Minnesota (2002)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lenhart, A., Rainie, L., Lewis, O.: Teenage Life Online: The Rise of the Instant Message Generation and the Internet’s Impact on Friendships And Family Relationships. Pew Internet and American Life Project, Washington (2001),
  10. 10.
    Lenhart, A., Shiu, E.: How Americans Use Instant Messaging. Pew Internet and American Life Project, Washington (2004),
  11. 11.
    Li, X., Atkins, M.: Early Childhood Computer Experience and Cognitive and Motor Development. Pediatrics 6(113), 1715–1722 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Luna, R.: Un Análisis Sobre la Relevancia de las Interacciones entre Estrategias Cognitivas y Modalidades de Procesamiento. Anales de Psicología 16(1), 61–77 (2000)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Marín, R.: Un Estudio Acerca de la Dimensión Estilo Cognitivo Dependencia-Independencia de Campo en Escolares Básicos de la Región del Bio-Bio Chile. M. Sc. Thesis, Escuela de Educación, Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (1988)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Meyer, D., Rubistein, J., Evans, J.: Executive Control of Cognitive Processes in Task Switching. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 27(4), 763–797 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ministerio de Educación: Sistema de Medición de la Calidad de Educación 2002 4° Básico. Editor, Santiago (2003),
  16. 16.
    Miyake, A., Sha, P.: Models of Working Memory: Mechanisms of Active Maintenance and Executive Control. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1999)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nardi, B., Whittaker, S., Bradner, E.: Interaction and Outeraction: Instant Messaging in Action. In: Proceedings on Computer Supported Cooperative Work- CSCW, Association for Computing Machinery. ACM, Philadelphia (2000)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nilesen Net Ratings: Internet Audience Measurement Service (2000),
  19. 19.
    Nua Internet Surveys: How Many on Line (2004),
  20. 20.
    Nie, N., Simpser, A., Stepanikova, I., Zheng, L.: Ten Years After The Birth of the Internet, How Do Americans Use the Internet in Their Daily Lives? Stanford Center for the Quantitative Study of Society, Stanford (2004),
  21. 21.
    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development – OECD: Understanding the Digital Divide. Editor, París (2001)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Valsiner, J., Van Der Veer, R.: The Social Mind: Construction of the Idea. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2000)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vygotsky, L.: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (1978)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Warschauer, M.: Technology and Social Inclusion: Rethinking the Digital Divide. Massachussets Institute of Technology, Massachusetts (2003)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Weschler, D.: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Revised. Psychological Corporation, San Antonio (1981)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    World Internet Project Chile: Síntesis de Resultados Wip Chile 2004. Instituto de Estudios Mediales UC, Santiago (2004),
  27. 27.
    Witkin, H., Goodenough, D.: Cognitive Styles: Essence and Origins Field Dependence and Field Independence. International University Press, New York (1981)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yus, F.: Ciberpragmática: El Uso del Lenguaje en Internet. Ariel, Barcelona (2001)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lucy García
    • 1
  • Miguel Nussbaum
    • 1
  • Joselyn Bolton
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Ciencia de la Computación, Escuela de IngenieríaPontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Vicuña MackennaSantiagoChile

Personalised recommendations