Advertisement

Growth of Oxides with Complex Stoichiometry by the ALD Technique, Exemplified by Growth of La1–xCaxMnO3

Chapter
Part of the Topics in Applied Physics book series (TAP, volume 106)

Abstract

To grow films with a complex stoichiometry by the ALD approach has long been regarded as a complicated task and hitherto not pursued to a large extent. This review will cover some of the milestones on the way to controlled deposition of compounds with intricate stoichiometry with the ALD technique. The survey shows that some of the foreseen obstacles might not necessarily be that severe. The growth of films of La1–x Ca x MnO3 will be used as a model to describe the process for growth of oxides with complex composition, and a mathematical model to predict the deposited stoichiometry is advanced. It is shown that the ALD window found for deposition of MnO2 is extended to higher temperatures when Ca and/or La is present on the film surface.

Keywords

71.55.-i; 72.80.Sk; 73.20.At; 75.47.Lx; 77.55.+f 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. M. Leskelä, M. Ritala: Atomic layer deposition (ALD): from precursors to thin film structures, Thin Solid Films 409, 138 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. L. Niinistö, J. Päiväsaari, J. Niinistö, M. Putkonen, M. Nieminen: Advanced electronic and optoelectronic materials by atomic layer deposition: an overview with special emphasis on recent progress in processing of high-k dielectrics and other oxide materials, Phys. Stat. Solidi A 201, 1443 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. M. Ritala, M. Leskelä: Atomic layer deposition, in H. S. Nalwa (Ed.): Handbook of thin film materials, vol. 1 (Academic Press, San Diego, CA 2002) p. 103 Google Scholar
  4. T. Hatanpaeae, M. Vehkamaeki, I. Mutikainen, J. Kansikas, M. Ritala, M. Leskelä: Synthesis and characterisation of cyclopentadienyl complexes of barium: precursors for atomic layer deposition of BaTiO3, Dalton Trans. 8, 1181 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. M. Ritala, K. Kukli, M. Vehkamaki, T. Hanninen, T. Hatanpaa, P. I. Raisanen, M. Leskelä: Atomic layer deposition of high-k oxides, Proc. Electrochem. Soc. 2000-13, 597 (2000) Google Scholar
  6. M. Vehkamaki, T. Hatanpää, T. Hänninen, M. Ritala, M. Leskelä: Growth of SrTiO3 and BaTiO3 thin films by atomic layer deposition, Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 2, 504 (1999) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. R. J. Potter, P. A. Marshall, J. L. Roberts, A. C. Jones, P. R. Chalker, M. Vehkamaeki, M. Ritala, M. Leskelä, P. A. Williams, H. O. Davies, N. L. Tobin, L. M. Smith: Liquid injection MOCVD and ALD studies of ``single source'' Sr–Nb and Sr–Ta precursors, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 784, 97 (2004) Google Scholar
  8. M. Vehkamaki, M. Ritala, M. Leskelä, A. C. Jones, H. O. Davies, T. Sajavaara, E. Rauhala: Atomic layer deposition of strontium tantalate thin films from bimetallic precursors and water, J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, F69 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Y. J. Cho, Y.-S. Min, J.-H. Lee, B.-S. Seo, J. K. Lee, Y. S. Park, J.-H. Choi: Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of bismuth titanium oxide thin films using direct liquid injection (DLI) method, Integr. Ferroelectr. 59, 1483 (2003) Google Scholar
  10. M. Schuisky, K. Kukli, M. Ritala, A. Harstå, M. Leskelä: Atomic layer CVD in the Bi–Ti–O system, Chem. Vap. Dep. 6, 139 (2000) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. O. Nilsen, A. Kjekshus, H. Fjellvåg: to be published Google Scholar
  12. M. Ritala, K. Kukli, A. Rahtu, P. I. Raisanen, M. Leskelä, T. Sajavaara, J. Keinonen: Atomic layer deposition of oxide thin films with metal alkoxides as oxygen sources, Science 288, 319 (2000) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. M. Nieminen, T. Sajavaara, E. Rauhala, M. Putkonen, L. Niinistö: Surface-controlled growth of LaAlO3 thin films by atomic layer epitaxy, J. Mater. Chem. 11, 2340 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. H. Seim, M. Nieminen, L. Niinistö, H. Fjellvåg, L.-S. Johansson: Growth of LaCoO3 thin films from β-diketonate precursors, Appl. Surf. Sci. 112, 243 (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. M. Ritala, P. Kalsi, D. Riihelä, K. Kukli, M. Leskelä, J. Jokinen: Controlled growth of TaN, Ta3N5, and TaOxNy thin films by atomic layer deposition, Chem. Mater. 11, 1712 (1999) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. M. Lie, A. Kjekshus, H. Fjellvåg: Growth of Pe2O3 thin films by atomic layer deposition, Thin Solid Films 488, 74 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. J.-S. Min, H.-S. Park, S.-W. Kang: Metalorganic atomic-layer deposition of titanium nitride silicide films, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1521 (1999) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. J.-S. Min, H.-S. Park, W. Koh, S.-W. Kang: Chemical vapor deposition of Ti–Si–N films with alternating source supply, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 564, 207 (1999) Google Scholar
  19. M. Nieminen, S. Lehto, L. Niinistö: Atomic layer epitaxy growth of LaGaO3 thin films, J. Mater. Chem. 11, 3148 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. O. Nilsen, M. Peussa, H. Fjellvåg, L. Niinistö, A. Kjekshus: Thin film deposition of lanthanum manganite perovskite by the ALE process, J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1781 (1999) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. K. Kukli, M. Peussa, L.-S. Johansson, E. Nykanen, L. Niinistö: Controlled growth of yttrium oxysulphide thin films by atomic layer deposition, Mater. Sci. Forum 315-317, 216 (1999) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. H. Seim, H. Molsa, M. Nieminen, H. Fjellvåg, L. Niinistö: Deposition of LaNiO3 thin films in an atomic layer epitaxy reactor, J. Mater. Chem. 7, 449 (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. B. W. Sanders, A. Kitai: Zinc oxysulfide thin films grown by atomic layer deposition, Chem. Mater. 4, 1005 (1992) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. D.-S. Kil, J. M. Lee, J.-S. Roh: Low-temperature ALD growth of SrTiO3 thin films from Sr β-diketonates and Ti alkoxide precursors using oxygen remote plasma as an oxidation source, Chem. Vap. Dep. 8, 195 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. A. Kosola, M. Putkonen, L.-S. Johansson, L. Niinistö: Effect of annealing in processing of strontium titanate thin films by ALD, Appl. Surf. Sci. 211, 102 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. O. S. Kwon, S. K. Kim, M. Cho, C. S. Hwang, J. Jeong: Chemically conformal ALD of SrTiO3 thin films using conventional metallorganic precursors, J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, C229 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. S. W. Lee, O. S. Kwon, C. S. Hwang: Chemically conformal deposition of SrTiO3 thin films by atomic layer deposition using conventional metal organic precursors and remote-plasma activated H2O, Microelectron. Eng. 80, 158 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. M. Vehkamaki, T. Hanninen, M. Ritala, M. Leskelä, T. Sajavaara, E. Rauhala, J. Keinonen: Atomic layer deposition of SrTiO3 thin films from a novel strontium precursor – strontium bis(tri-isopropylcyclopentadienyl), Chem. Vap. Dep. 7, 75 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. K. Kukli, H. Heikkinen, E. Nykanen, L. Niinistö: Deposition of lanthanum sulfide thin films by atomic layer epitaxy, J. Alloys Comp. 275–277, 10 (1998) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. M. Lie, A. Kjekshus, H. Fjellvåg: to be published Google Scholar
  31. N. Tsuboi, T. Isu, N. Kakuda, T. Terasako, S. Iida: Vapor-phase atomic layer epitaxy of CuGaS2 at atmospheric pressure using metal chlorides and H2S, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 33, L244 (1994) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. V. E. Drozd, A. A. Tulub, V. B. Aleskovski, Korol'kov: Synthesis of oxide superalloys by ML-ALE method, Appl. Surf. Sci. 82-83, 587 (1994) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. M. Nanu, L. Reijnen, B. Meester, J. Schoonman, A. Goossens: CuInS2 thin films deposited by ALD, Chem. Vap. Dep. 10, 45 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. J. Ihanus, M. Ritala, M. Leskelä: ALE growth of SrS1-xSex thin films by substituting surface sulfur with elemental selenium, Proc. Electrochem. Soc. 25, 1423 (1997) Google Scholar
  35. J. Ihanus, E. Lambers, P. H. Holloway, M. Ritala, M. Leskelä: XPS and electroluminescence studies on SrS1-xSex and ZnS1-xSex thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition technique, J. Cryst. Growth 260, 440 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. C.-T. Hsu: Epitaxial growth of II–VI compound semiconductors by atomic layer epitaxy, Thin Solid Films 335, 284 (1998) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. C.-T. Hsu: Variation with composition of the properties in ZnSxSe1-x, J. Cryst. Growth 193, 33 (1998) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. C.-T. Hsu: Growth of ZnSxSe1-x layers on Si substrates by atomic layer epitaxy, Mater. Chem. Phys. 58, 6 (1999) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. J. Ihanus, M. Ritala, M. Leskelä, Rauhala: ALE growth of ZnS1-xSex thin films by substituting surface sulfur with elemental selenium, Appl. Surf. Sci. 112, 154 (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. H. Ikeda, Y. Miura, N. Takahashi, A. Koukitu, H. Seki: Substitution of surface-adsorbed As atoms to P atoms in atomic layer epitaxy, Appl. Surf. Sci. 82–83, 257 (1994) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. T. Taki, T. Nakajima, A. Koukitu, H. Seki: Substitution reaction of surface adsorbed P atoms to As atoms in the GaP/GaAs atomic layer epitaxy, J. Cryst. Growth 183, 75 (1998) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Y.-S. Min, Y. J. Cho, C. S. Hwang: Amorphous high k dielectric Bi1-x-yTixSiyOz thin films by ALD, Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 7, F85 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Y.-S. Min, Y. J. Cho, I. P. Asanov, J. H. Han, W. D. Kim, C. S. Hwang: Bi1-x-yTixSiyOz (BTSO) thin films for dynamic random access memory capacitor applications, Chem. Vap. Dep. 11, 38 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. W. C. Shin, S. O. Ryu, I. K. You, S. M. Yoon, S. M. Cho, N. Y. Lee, K. D. Kim, B. G. Yu, W. J. Lee, K. J. Choi, S. G. Yoon: Low voltage switching characteristics of 60thick SrBi2Ta2O9 thin films deposited by plasma-enhanced ALD, Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 7, F31 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. R. J. Potter, P. R. Chalker, T. D. Manning, H. C. Aspinall, Y. F. Loo, A. C. Jones, L. M. Smith, G. W. Critchlow, M. Schumacher: Deposition of HfO2, Gd2O3 and PrOx by liquid injection ALD techniques, Chem. Vap. Dep. 11, 159 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. W. Prellier, P. Lecoeur, B. Mercey: Colossal magnetoresistive manganite thin films, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, R915 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. J. Z. Sun, L. Krusin-Elbaum, A. Gupta, G. Xiao, P. R. Duncombe, S. S. P. Parkin: Magnetotransport in doped manganate perovskites, IBM J. Res. Dev. 42, 89 (1998) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. J. M. D. Coey, M. Viret, S. Von Molnar: Mixed-valence manganites, Adv. Phys. 48, 167 (1999) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. E. Dagotto, T. Hotta, A. Moreo: Colossal magnetoresistant materials: the key role of phase separation, Phys. Rep. 344, 1 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. L. P. Gor'kov, V. Z. Kresin: Mixed-valence manganites: fundamentals and main properties, Phys. Rep. 400, 149 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. A. M. Haghiri-Gosnet, J. P. Renard: CMR manganites: physics, thin films and devices, J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 36, R127 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. S. Jin, M. McCormack, T. H. Tiefel, R. Ramesh: Colossal magnetoresistance in La–Ca–Mn–O ferromagnetic thin films, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 6929 (1994) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. E. L. Nagaev: Colossal-magnetoresistance materials: manganites and conventional ferromagnetic semiconductors, Phys. Rep. 346, 387 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. L. Sheng, D. Y. Xing, D. N. Sheng, C. S. Ting: Theory of colossal magnetoresistance in R1-xAxMnO3, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1710 (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. R. von Helmolt, J. Wecker, K. Samwer, K. Baerner: Transport properties of manganates with giant magnetoresistance, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 151, 411 (1995) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. O. Nilsen, A. Kjekshus, H. Fjellvåg: to be published Google Scholar
  57. O. Nilsen, H. Fjellvåg, A. Kjekshus: Growth of manganese oxide thin films by atomic layer deposition, Thin Solid Films 444, 44 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. O. Nilsen, H. Fjellvåg, A. Kjekshus: Growth of calcium carbonate by the atomic layer chemical vapour deposition technique, Thin Solid Films 450, 240 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. M. Ylilammi: Monolayer thickness in atomic layer deposition, Thin Solid Films 279, 124 (1996) CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of OsloOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations