Advertisement

On the Transformation of Sentences with Genitive Relations to SQL Queries

  • Zsolt T. Kardkovács
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3513)

Abstract

In our ongoing project called “In the Web of Words” (WoW) we aimed to create a complex search interface that incorporates a deep web search engine module based on a Hungarian question processor. One of the most crucial part of the system was the transformation of genitive relations to adequate SQL queries, since e.g. questions begin with “Who” and “What” mostly contain such a relation. The genitive relation is one of the most complex semantic structures, since it could express wide range of different connection types between entities, even in a single language. Thus, transformation of its syntactic form to a formal computer language is far from clear. In the last decade, several natural language database interfaces (NLIDBs) have been proposed, however, a detailed or a general description of this problem is still missing in the literature. In this paper, we describe how to translate genitive phrases into SQL queries in general, i.e. we omit Hungarian-dependent optimizations.

Keywords

Natural Language Reference Function Question Answering System Idiomatic Expression Combinatory Categorial Grammar 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Brightplanet – deep web white paper, http://www.brightplanet.com/pdf/
  2. 2.
    Iso/iec 9075-14:2003 standard, http://www.iso.org
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
  5. 5.
    White paper on deep content retrieval, http://www.brightplanet.com/pdf/
  6. 6.
  7. 7.
    Androutsopoulos, I., Ritchie, G.D., Thanisch, P.: Natural language interfaces to databases – an introduction. Journal of Natural Language Engineering 1, 29–81 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Winkler, H.: In: Suchmaschinen – Metamedien im Internet? Campus Verlag, Frankfurt/ New York, 185–202 (1997) In English: http://www.unipadernborn.de/~timwinkler/schum_e.html
  9. 9.
    Popescu, A.M., Etzioni, O., Kautz, H.: Towards a theory of natural language interfaces to databases. In: Johnson, W., André, E., Domingue, J. (eds.) Proc. of the 8th IUI 2003. Internation Conferences on Intelligent User Interfaces, Miami, pp. 149–157. ACM Press, New York (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Popescu, A.M., Armanasu, A., Etzioni, O., Ko, D., Yates, A.: Modern natural language interfaces to databases: Composing statistical parsing with semantic tractability. In: Proc. of COLING 2004. International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Geneva, Switzerland (2004)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Katz, B.: Using English for Indexing and Retrieving. Artificial Intelligence at MIT: Expanding Frontiers, vol. 1, pp. 134–165. MIT Press, Cambridge (1990)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
  13. 13.
    Katz, B., Lin, J.L.: Start and beyond. In: Proc. of SCI 2002. Volume XVI of World Multiconference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics (2002)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
  15. 15.
    Stratica, N., Kosseim, L., Desai, B.C.: A natural language processor for querying cindi. In: Milutinovic, V. (ed.) Proc. of SSGRR 2002. International Conference on Advances in Infrastructure for e-Business, e-Education, e-Science, and e-Medicine on the Internet, L’Aquila, Italy (2002), Electronically: http://www.ssgrr.it/
  16. 16.
    Androutsopoulos, I., Ritchie, G.D., Thanisch, P.: Masque/sql – an efficient and portable natural language query interface for relational databases. In: Chung, P., Lovegrove, G., Ali, M. (eds.) Proc. of IEA/AIE 1993 Conference. IEA/AIE Conferences, pp. 327–330. Edinburgh, Gordon and Breach Publishing (1993)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Warren, D.H., Pereira, F.C.: An efficient easily adaptable system for interpreting natural language queries. Computational Linguistics 8, 110–122 (1982)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Grosz, B.J., Appelt, D.E., Martin, P.A., Pereira, F.C.: Team: An experiment in the design of transportable natural-language interfaces. Artifical Intelligence 32, 173–243 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pazos Rangel, R.A., Gelbukh, A., González Barbosa, J.J., Alarcón Ruiz, E., Mendoza Mejía, A., Domínguez Sánchez, A.P.: Spanish natural language interface for a relational database querying system. In: Sojka, P., Kopeček, I., Pala, K. (eds.) TSD 2002. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 2448, pp. 123–130. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
  21. 21.
    Cedermark, P.: Swedish noun and adjective morphology in a natural language interface to databases. Master thesis, Uppsala University, Department of Linguistics (2003)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Reis, P., Matias, J., Mamede, N.: Edite: A natural language interface to databases – a new perspective for an old approach. In: Proc. of ENTER 1997. Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism, Edinburgh, pp. 317–326. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Filipe, P.P., Mamede, N.J.: Databases and natural language interfaces. In: Delgado, C., Marcos, E., Corral, J.M.M. (eds.) Proc. of 5th JISBD. Jornada de Engenharia de Software e Bases de Dados, Valladolid, Universidad de Valladolid, pp. 321–332 (2000)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Meng, X., Wang, S.: Overview of a chinese natural language interface to databases: Nchiql. International Journal of Computer Processing of Oriental Languages 14, 213–232 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chae, J., Lee, S.: Frame-based decomposition method for korean natural language query processing. International Journal of Computer Processing of Oriental Languages 11, 213–232 (1998)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lee, H., Park, J.C.: Interpretation of natural language queries for relational database access with combinatory categorial grammar. International Journal of Computer Processing of Oriental Languages 15, 281–303 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Barker, C., Dowty, D.R.: Non-verbal thematic proto-roles. In: Schafer, A. (ed.) Proc. of NELS 23 Conference. North-Eastern Linguistics Conferences, Amherst, Massachusetts, pp. 49–62. GLSA Publications (1992)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chisarik, E., Payne, J.: Modelling possessor constructions in lfg: English and hungarian. In: Butt, M., King, T. (eds.) Proc. of the LFG 2001 Conference. International Lexical-Functional Grammar Conferences, Hongkong, pp. 49–62. Stanford CSLI Publications (2001)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jensen, P.A., Vikner, C.: The english prenominal genitive and lexical semantics. In: Workshop on the Semantics/Syntax of Possessive Constructions, Amherst, Massachusetts (2002) Invited paper Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Storto, G.: Possessives in context. Possessives and Beyond: Semantics and Syntax, Amherst, Massachusetts, pp. 59–86. GLSA Publications (2004)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tikk, D., Kardkovács, Z.T., Andriska, Z., Magyar, G., Babarczy, A., Szakadát, I.: Natural language question processing for hungarian deep web searcher. In: Elmenreich, W., Haidinger, W., Machado, J.T. (eds.) Proc. of ICCC 2004. IEEE Internation Conference on Computational Cybernetics, Wien, Austria, pp. 303–309 (2004)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Katz, B., Felshin, S., Yuret, D., Ibrahim, A., Lin, J.J., Marton, G., McFarland, A.J., Temelkuran, B.: Omnibase: A uniform access to heterogeneous data for question answering. In: Andersson, B., Bergholtz, M., Johannesson, P. (eds.) NLDB 2002. LNCS, vol. 2553, pp. 230–234. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Barker, C.: Possessive Descriptions. PhD thesis, University of Carolina, Santa Cruz, Department of Linguistics (1995)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Storto, G.: Possessives in Context – Issues in the Semantics of Possessive Constructions. PhD thesis, University of California, Los Angeles, Linguistics (2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zsolt T. Kardkovács
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Telecommunications and MediainformaticsBudapest University of Technology 

Personalised recommendations