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Medicinal Plants, Human Health and Biodiversity: A Broad Review

Part of the Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology book series (ABE,volume 147)

Abstract

Biodiversity contributes significantly towards human livelihood and development and thus plays a predominant role in the well being of the global population. According to WHO reports, around 80 % of the global population still relies on botanical drugs; today several medicines owe their origin to medicinal plants. Natural substances have long served as sources of therapeutic drugs, where drugs including digitalis (from foxglove), ergotamine (from contaminated rye), quinine (from cinchona), and salicylates (willow bark) can be cited as some classical examples.Drug discovery from natural sources involve a multifaceted approach combining botanical, phytochemical, biological, and molecular techniques. Accordingly, medicinal-plant–based drug discovery still remains an important area, hitherto unexplored, where a systematic search may definitely provide important leads against various pharmacological targets.Ironically, the potential benefits of plant-based medicines have led to unscientific exploitation of the natural resources, a phenomenon that is being observed globally. This decline in biodiversity is largely the result of the rise in the global population, rapid and sometimes unplanned industrialization, indiscriminate deforestation, overexploitation of natural resources, pollution, and finally global climate change.Therefore, it is of utmost importance that plant biodiversity be preserved, to provide future structural diversity and lead compounds for the sustainable development of human civilization at large. This becomes even more important for developing nations, where well-planned bioprospecting coupled with nondestructive commercialization could help in the conservation of biodiversity, ultimately benefiting mankind in the long run.Based on these findings, the present review is an attempt to update our knowledge about the diverse therapeutic application of different plant products against various pharmacological targets including cancer, human brain, cardiovascular function, microbial infection, inflammation, pain, and many more.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords

  • Biodiversity
  • CNS
  • Cardiovascular
  • Anticancer
  • Antimicrobial

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Acknowledgments

The authors are thankful to Ratul Sarkar, Kirendra Kr. Yadav, D. Sinha, Md. Firdaus, Pritam Saha, Amrita Sharma, Prof. Samantak Das, and Aritro Bhattacharjee for their help during the preparation of the manuscript.

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Sen, T., Samanta, S.K. (2014). Medicinal Plants, Human Health and Biodiversity: A Broad Review. In: Mukherjee, J. (eds) Biotechnological Applications of Biodiversity. Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology, vol 147. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/10_2014_273

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