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Organisms for Biofuel Production: Natural Bioresources and Methodologies for Improving Their Biosynthetic Potentials

Chapter
Part of the Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology book series (ABE, volume 147)

Abstract

In order to relieve the pressure of energy supply and environment contamination that humans are facing, there are now intensive worldwide efforts to explore natural bioresources for production of energy storage compounds, such as lipids, alcohols, hydrocarbons, and polysaccharides. Around the world, many plants have been evaluated and developed as feedstock for bioenergy production, among which several crops have successfully achieved industrialization. Microalgae are another group of photosynthetic autotroph of interest due to their superior growth rates, relatively high photosynthetic conversion efficiencies, and vast metabolic capabilities. Heterotrophic microorganisms, such as yeast and bacteria, can utilize carbohydrates from lignocellulosic biomass directly or after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis to produce liquid biofuels such as ethanol and butanol. Although finding a suitable organism for biofuel production is not easy, many naturally occurring organisms with good traits have recently been obtained. This review mainly focuses on the new organism resources discovered in the last 5 years for production of transport fuels (biodiesel, gasoline, jet fuel, and alkanes) and hydrogen, and available methods to improve natural organisms as platforms for the production of biofuels.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords

Biofuels Biosynthetic potential Methodologies Natural bioresources 

Abbreviations

ACCase

acetyl-CoA carboxylase

ACP

acyl carrier

CoA

coenzyme A

DGAT

diacylglycerol acyltransferase

DHAP

dihydroxyacetone phosphate

ENR

enoyl-ACP reductase

FAT

fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase

G3PDH

gycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

GPAT

glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase

HD

3-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase

KAR

3-ketoacyl-ACP reductase

KAS

3-ketoacyl-ACP synthase

LPAAT

lyso-phosphatidic acid acyltransferase

LPAT

lyso-phosphatidylcholine acyltransferase

MAT

malonyl-CoA:ACP transacylase

PDH

pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (2011CB707404), the National Key Technology R&D Research Programs (2011BAD22B02-01, 2009AA10Z101), the Natural Science Foundation of China (U1232126), and the Key Research Program of Shandong Province (2012GGF01023).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess TechnologyCASQingdaoChina
  2. 2.Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Key Laboratory of BiofuelsQingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of SciencesQingdaoChina

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