Advertisement

Domains as a Prerequisite for Requirements and Software Domain Perspectives and Facets, Requirements Aspects and Software Views

  • Dines Bjørner
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 1526)

Abstract

We take software [systems] engineering to consist of three major phases: domain engineering, requirements engineering and software [systems] design engineering. We outline these and emphasise domain perspectives and facets, requirements aspects and software architecture and program organisation views.

This paper is the direct result of a US Office of Army Research October 12–14, 1997 workshop on Requirements Targeting Software and Systems Engineering held at Bernried am Staarnberger See, Bavaria, Germany. In consonance with the aims and objectives of that workshop we conclude some subsections with a set of meta–requirements (i.e. requirements to software engineering, its research, education and practice).

The paper is discursive and informal: we identify a number of methodological principles, techniques and tools. Not all such (hence discursive) and not all necessarily formalisable (hence informal). Wrt. the latter: one cannot formalise the principles that are needed in a systematic, well-guided process of selecting and applying techniques and tools in the analysis and synthesis of specifications — whether of domain, requirements or software. Instead we are left to conjecture the usefulness of certain such principles, techniques and tools. Sometimes such conjectures are refuted when better principles, techniques and tools are proposed. Some sociological issues of ‘formal methods’ are summarised (in section 4.5).

Since this paper will appear in a workshop proceedings with a number of other papers from that workshop, the paper will not repeat the relevant points made by other workshop participants and supposedly published in their contributions. I refer, amongst several, to contributions made at the workshop by Carl Gunther, Anthony Finkelstein, Michael Jackson, Tom Maibaum and others.

On issues of requirements, I have, in particular, benefited much from [83,82,111]. The handy book [82] is simply a pearl: delightful and thought provoking!

Keywords

Software Engineering Formal Method Requirement Engineering Software Architecture Requirement Engineer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Abowd, G., Allen, R., Garlan, D.: Using style to understand descriptions of software architecture. SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes 18(5), 9–20 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abowd, G.D., Allen, R., Garlan, D.: Formalizing style to understand descriptions of software architecture. ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology 4(4), 319–364 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Abrial, J.-R., Lee, M.K.O., Neilson, D.S.D.S., Scharbach, P.N., Sorensen, I.H.: The B-method (software development). In: Prehn, S., Toetenel, W.J. (eds.) VDM 1991. LNCS, vol. 552. Springer, Heidelberg (1991)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Abrial, J.-R.: The B Book. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1996)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Abrial, J.R.: The B Tool (Abstract), vol. 29, pp. 86–87 (September 1988)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Acebedo, C.M.: An Informal Domain Analysis for Manufacturing Enterprises. Research Report 62, UNU/IIST, P.O.Box 3058, Macau (March 1996)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Acebedo, C.M., Paguio, E.: Manufacturing Enterprise Simulation: A Business Game. Research Report 64, UNU/IIST, P.O.Box 3058, Macau (March 1996)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Allen, R., Garlan, D.: A formal approach to software architectures. In: IFIP Transactions A (Computer Science and Technology), IFIP Wordl Congress, Madrid, Spain, vol. A-12, pp. 134–141. IFIP, North Holland (1992)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Allen, R., Garlan, D.: Formalizing architectural connection. In: 16th International Conference on Software Engineering (Cat. No.94CH3409-0), Sorrento, Italy, pp. 71–80. IEEE Comput. Soc. Press, Los Alamitos (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Amdahl, G., Blaauw, G., Brooks, F.: The IBM System/360 Architecture. IBM Systems Journal (1964)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Anh, D.N., Moore, R.: Formal Modelling of Large Domains — with an Application to Airline Business. Technical Report 74, UNU/IIST, P.O.Box 3058, Macau, June 1996. Revised (September 1996)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Berry, D.M.: The importance of ignorance in requirements engineering. Journal of Systems and Software 28(2), 179–184 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Biebow, B., Szulman, S.: Acquisition and validation of software requirements. Knowledge Acquisition 6(4), 343–367 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bjørner, D.: Prospects for a Viable Software Industry — Enterprise Models, Design Calculi, and Reusable Modules. Technical Report 12, UNU/IIST, P.O.Box 3058, Macau (November 7, 1993); published in Prehn, S., Yulin, D.: Appendix – on a railway domain model. In: Proceedings from first ACM Japan Chapter Conference, March 7-9. World Scientific Publ., Singapore (1994)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bjørner, D.: Federated GIS+DIS-based Decision Support Systems for Sustainable Development — a Conceptual Architecture. Research Report 61, UNU/IIST, P.O.Box 3058, Macau, Draft (March 1996)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bjørner, D.: Models of Enterprise Management: Strategy, Tactics and Operations — Case Study Applied to Airlines and Manufacturing. Technical Report 60, UNU/IIST, P.O.Box 3058, Macau (January - April 1996)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bjørner, D.: A Software Engineering Paradigm: From Domains via Requirements to Software. Research report, Dept. of Information Technology, Technical University of Denmark, Bldg.345/167-169, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark (July 1997)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bjørner, D.: Models of Financial Services and Industries. Research Report 96, UNU/IIST, P.O.Box 3058, Macau, Incomplete Draft Report (January 1997)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bjørner, D.: Towards a Domain Theory of The Financial Sevice Industry. Research report, Dept. of Information Technology, Technical University of Denmark, Bldg.345/167-169, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark (July 1997)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bjørner, D., George, C.W., Stig Hansen, B., Laustrup, H., Prehn, S.: A Railway System, Coordination 1997, Case Study Workshop Example. Research Report 93, UNU/IIST, P.O.Box 3058, Macau (January 1997)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bjørner, D., George, C.W., Prehn, S.: Scheduling and rescheduling of trains, p. 24. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1997)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bjørner, D., Jones, C.B. (eds.): The Vienna Development Method: The Meta-Language. LNCS, vol. 61. Springer, Heidelberg (1978)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bjørner, D., Jones, C.B. (eds.): Formal Specification and Software Development ment. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1982)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bjørner, D.: Prospects for a Viable Software Industry — Enterprise Models, Design Calculi, and Reusable Modules. Technical Report 12, UNU/IIST, P.O.Box 3058, Macau, 7 November (1993); published in Prehn, S., Yulin, D.: Appendix— on a railway domain model. In: Proceedings from first ACM Japan Chapter Conference, March 7-9. World Scientific Publ., Singapore (1994)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bjørner, D.: Models of Financial Services and Industries. Research Report 96, UNU/IIST, P.O.Box 3058, Macau, Incomplete Draft Report (January 1997)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bjørner, D., George, C.W., Hansen, B.S., Laustrup, H., Prehn, S.: A Railway System, Coordination 1997, Case Study Workshop Example. Research Report 93, UNU/IIST, P.O.Box 3058, Macau (January 1997)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bjørner, D., Koussobe, S., Noussi, R., Satchok, G.: Michael Jackson’s Problem Frames. In: ShaoQi, L., Hinchley, M. (eds.) ICFEM 1997: Intl. Conf. on Formal Engineering Mehtods, November 12-14. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (1997)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bjørner, D., Lin, D.Y., Prehn, S.: Domain Analyses: A Case Study of Station Management. Research Report 23, UNU/IIST, P.O.Box 3058, Macau, 9 November (1994); Presented at the 1994 Kunming International CASE Symposium: KICS 1994, Yunnan Province, P.R.of China ( November 16-20, 1994)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bloomfield, R., Marshall, L., Jones, R. (eds.): VDM 1988. LNCS, vol. 328. Springer, Heidelberg (1988)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Boehm, B., In, H.: Identifying quality-requirement conflicts. In: Second International Conference on Requirements Engineering (Cat. No.96TB100037), Colorado Springs, CO, USA, p. 218. IEEE Comput. Soc. Press, Los Alamitos (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bowen, J.P., Hinchey, M.: Seven More Myths of Formal Methods. Technical Report PRG-TR-7-94, Oxford Univ., Programming Research Group, Wolfson Bldg., Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QD, UK (June 1994); Short version published in Naftalin, M., Bertrán, M., Denvir, T. (eds.): FME 1994. LNCS, vol. 873. Springer, Heidelberg (1994)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bowen, J.P., Hinchey, M.: Ten Commandments of Formal Methods. Technical report, Oxford Univ., Programming Research Group, Wolfson Bldg., Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QD, UK (1995)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chaochen, Z.: Duration Calculi: An Overview. Research Report 10, UNU/IIST, P.O.Box 3058, Macau (June 1993); In: Bjørner, D., Broy, M., Pottosin, I.: Formal Methods in Programming and Their Applications, Conference Proceedings, Novosibirsk, Russia, June 28 - July 2. LNCS, vol. 736, pp. 36–59. Springer, Heidelberg (1993)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chaochen, Z., Hansen, M.R.: Lecture Notes on Logical Foundations for the Duration Calculus. Lecture Notes, 13, UNU/IIST, P.O.Box 3058, Macau (August. 1993)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chaochen, Z., Hoare, C.A.R., Ravn, A.P.: A Calculus of Durations. Information Proc. Letters 40(5) (1992)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chaochen, Z., Hoare, C.A.R., Ravn, A.P.: A Calculus of Durations. Information Processing Letters 40(5), 269–276 (1991)zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chaochen, Z., Huiqun, Y.: A duration Model for Railway scheduling. Technical Report 24b, UNU/IIST, P.O.Box 3058, Macau (May 1994)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chaochen, Z., van Hung, D., Xiaoshan, L.: A Duration Calculus with Infinite Intervals. Research Report 40, UNU/IIST, P.O.Box 3058, Macau (February 1995); published in Reichel, H. (ed.): FCT 1995. LNCS, vol. 965, pp. 16–41. Springer, Heidelberg (1995)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chaochen, Z., Ravn, A.P., Hansen, M.R.: An Extended Duration Calculus for Real-time Systems. Research Report 9, UNU/IIST, P.O.Box 3058, Macau (January 1993); published in Grossman, R.L., Ravn, A.P., Rischel, H., Nerode, A. (eds.): HS 1991 and HS 1992. LNCS, vol. 736. Springer, Heidelberg (1993)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chaochen, Z., Xiaoshan, L.: A Mean Value Duration Calculus. Research Report 5, UNU/IIST, P.O.Box 3058, Macau (March 1993); Published as In: A Classical Mind, Festschrift for C.A.R. Hoare, ch. 25, pp. 432-451. Prentice-Hall International, Englewood Cliffs (1994)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cucchiarelli, A., Panti, M., Valenti, S.: Supporting user-analyst interaction in functional requirements elicitation. In: First Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 114–123. IEEE Comput.Soc.Press, Los Alamitos (1994)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Darke, P., Shanks, G.: Stakeholder viewpoints in requirements definition: a framework for understanding viewpoint development approaches. Requirements Engineering 1(2), 88–105 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Dawes, J.: The VDM-SL Reference Guide. Pitman Publishing (1991)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Dung, D.T., Chi, L.L., Thu, N.L., Nam, P.P., Lien, T.M., George, C.: Developing a Financial Information System. Technical Report 81, UNU/IIST, P.O.Box 3058, Macau (September 1996)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Elmstrøm, R., Larsen, P.G., Lassen, P.B.: The IFAD VDM-SL Toolbox: A Practical Approach to Formal Specifications. ACM SIGPAN Notoces 29(9), 77–80 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Erdenechimeg, M., Moore, R., Namsrai, Y.: MultiScript I: The Basic Model of Multi-lingual Documents. Technical Report 105, UNU/IIST, P.O.Box 3058, Macau (June 1997)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hess, J.A., et al.: Feature-oriented domain analysis (FODA) feasibility study. Technical Report CMU-SEI-90-TR-21, Carnegie Mellon University. SEI Software Engineering Institute, DoD, Pittsburgh, Penn., USA (1990)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Thayer, R., et al. (eds.): Software Requirements Engineering. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los AlamitosGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Xinyiao, Y., et al.: Stability of Railway Systems. Technical Report 28, UNU/IIST, P.O.Box 3058, Macau (May 1994)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Finkelstein, A.: Tracing back from requirements. In: IEE Colloquium on Tools and Techniques for Maintaining Traceability During Design (Digest No.180), London, UK. IEE (1991)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Fitzgerald, J., Larsen, P.G.: Developing Software using VDM-SL. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1997)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Gabbay, D.M., Hogger, C.J., Robinson, J.A., Nute, D. (eds.): Deduction Methodologies. Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming, vol. 2. Oxford Science Publications, Oxford; Clarendon Press, England (1993)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gabbay, D.M., Hogger, C.J., Robinson, J.A., Nute, D. (eds.): Logical Foundations. Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming, vol. 1. Oxford Science Publications, Oxford; Clarendon Press, England (1993)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Gabbay, D.M., Hogger, C.J., Robinson, J.A., Nute, D. (eds.): Nonmonotonic Reasoning and Uncertain Reasoning. Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming, vol. 3. Oxford Science Publications, Clarendon Press (1994)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gabbay, D.M., Hogger, C.J., Robinson, J.A., Nute, D. (eds.): Epistemic and Tempral Reasoning. Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming, vol. 4. Oxford Science Publications, Oxford; Clarendon Press, England (1995)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Garlan, D.: Research directions in software architecture. ACM Computing Surveys 27(2), 257–261 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Garlan, D.: Formal approaches to software architecture. In: Studies of Software Design. ICSE 1993 Workshop. Selected Papers, Berlin, Germany, pp. 64–76. Springer, Heidelberg (1996)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Garlan, D., Shaw, M.: Experience with a course on architectures for software systems. In: Software Engineering Education. SEI Conference 1992, San Diego, CA, USA, pp. 23–43. Springer, Berlin (1992)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Garlan, D., Shaw, M.: An introduction to software architecture, pp. 1–39. World Scientific, Singapore (1993)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Goguen, J.A., LuQi: Formal methods and social context in software development. In: Mosses, P.D., Nielsen, M., Schwartzbach, M.I. (eds.) TAPSOFT 1995: Theory and Practice of Software Development. 6th International Joint Conference CAA/FASE, Aarhus, Denmark, pp. 62–81 (1995)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Goossenaerts, J., Bjørner, D.: An Information Technology Framework for Lean/Agile Supply-based Industries in Developing Countries. Technical Report 30, UNU/IIST, P.O.Box 3058, Macau (1994); Published in Proceedings of the International Dedicated Conference on Lean/Agile Manufacturing in the Automotive Industries, ISATA, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Goossenaerts, J., Bjørner, D.: Interflow Systems for Manufacturing: Concepts and a Construction. Technical Report 31, UNU/IIST, P.O.Box 3058, Macau (1994); Published in Proceedings of the European Workshop on Integrated Manufacturing Systems EngineeringGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    The RAISE Language Group: The RAISE Specification Language. The BCS Practitioner Series. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1995)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    The RAISE Method Group: The RAISE Method. The BCS Practitioner Series. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1992)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Gunther, C.: Higher Order Logics in Requirements Engineering. In: Broay, M. (ed.) Requirements Targeting Software (Systems) Engineering (1997)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Guttag, J., Horning, J.J., Wing, J.M.: Larch in Five Easy Pieces. Technical Report 5, DEC SRC, Dig. Equipm. Corp. Syst. Res. Ctr., Palo Alto, California, USA (1985)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Guttag, J.V., Horning, J.J., Garland, S.J., Jones, K.D., Modet, A., Wing, J.M.: Larch: Languages and Tools for Formal Specification. Texts and Monographs in Computer Science. Springer, New York (1993)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hall, A.: Seven Myths of Formal Methods. IEEE Software 7(5), 11–19 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hall, P.A.V., Bjørner, D., Mikolajuk, Z.: Decision Support Systems for Sustainable Development: Experience and Potential — a Position Paper. Administrative Report 80, UNU/IIST, P.O.Box 3058, Macau (August 1996)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hayes, I.J. (ed.): Specification Case Studies. International Series in Computer Science. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1987)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Haywood, E., Dart, P.: Analysis of software system requirements models. In: Australian Software Engineering Conference, pp. 131–138. IEEE Comput. Soc. Press, Los Alamitos (1996)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Heitmeyer, C.L., Jeffords, R.D., Labaw, B.G.: Automated Consistency Checking of Requirements Specifications. TOSEM: ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology 5(3), 231–261 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Hennesy, J., Patterson, D.: Computer Architectures. Addison Wesley, Reading (1997)Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hennesy, J., Patterson, D.: Computer Organisations. Addison Wesley, Reading (1997)Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hoare, J., Dick, J., Neilson, D., Sorensen, I.H.: Applying the B technologies to CICS. In: Gaudel, M.-C., Woodcock, J.C.P. (eds.) FME 1996. LNCS, vol. 1051. Springer, Heidelberg (1996)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    van Hung, D., Chaochen, Z.: Probabilistic Duration Calculus for Continuous Time. Research Report 25, UNU/IIST, P.O.Box 3058, Macau (May 1994); Presented at NSL 1994 (Workshop on Non-standard Logics and Logical Aspects of Computer Science, Kanazawa, Japan, December 5-8, 1994); submitted to Formal Aspects of Computing Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    van Hung, D., Giang, P.H.: A Sampling Semantics of Duration Calculus. Research Report 50, UNU/IIST, P.O.Box 3058, Macau (November 1995); published in: B., Parrow, J. (eds.): FTRTFT 1996. LNCS, vol. 1135, pp. 188–207. Springer, Heidelberg (1996)Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    IEEE: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Requirements En-gineering, Corolodo Springs, CO, USA. IEEE Comput. Soc. Press, Los Alamitos (1996)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Jackson, D.: Structuring Z Specifications with Views. ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology 4(4), 365–389 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Jackson, M.: Problems and requirements (software development). In: Second IEEE International Symposium on Requirements Engineering (Cat. No.95TH8040), pp. 2–8. IEEE Comput. Soc. Press, Los Alamitos (1995)Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Jackson, M.: Problems, methods and specialisation. Software Engineering Journal, 249–255 (November 1994)Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Jackson, M.: Software Requirements and Specifications: a lexicon of practice, principles and prejudices, pp. xiv+228. ACM Press. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company (1995), E-mail: ipc@awpub.add-wes.co.uk (ISBN 0-201-87712-0)Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Jackson, M.A.: Software Development Method, ch. 13, pp. 215–234. Prentice Hall Intl., Englewood Cliffs (1994); Roscoe, W.(Ed.): Festschrift for C. A. R. Hoare: A Classical MindGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Janowski, T., Acebedo, C.M.: Virtual Enterprise: On Refinement Towards an ODP Architecture. Research Report 69, UNU/IIST, P.O.Box 3058, Macau (May 1996)Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Janowski, T.: Domain Analysis for Manufacturing: Formalization of the Market. Research Report 63, UNU/IIST, P.O.Box 3058, Macau (March 1996)Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Janowski, T., Atienza, R.V.: A Formal Model For Competing Enterprises, Applied to Marketing Decision-Making. Research Report 92, UNU/IIST, P.O.Box 3058, Macau (January 1997)Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Jones, C.B.: Systematic Software Development using VDM, 2nd edn. Prentice Hall International, Englewood Cliffs (1990)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kirikova, M., Bubenko Jr., J.A.: Software requirements acquisition through enterprise modelling. In: SEKE 1994 The 6th International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, Skokie, IL, USA, pp. 20–27 (1994); Knowledge Syst. Inst. Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kosters, G., Six, H.-W., Voss, J.: Combined analysis of user interface and domain requirements. In: Second International Conference on Requirements Engineering (Cat. No-96TB100037), Colorado Springs, CO, USA, pp. 199–207. IEEE Comput. Soc. Press, Los Alamitos (1996)Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Koussoubé, S.: Knowledge-Based Systems: Formalisation and Applications to Insurance. Research Report 108, UNU/IIST, P.O.Box 3058, Macau (May 1997)Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Larsen, P.G., Hansen, B.S., Brunn, H., Plat, N., Toetenel, H., Andrews, D.J., Dawes, J., Parkin, G., et al.: Information technology — Programming languages, their environments and system software interfaces — Vienna Development Method — Specification Language — Part 1: Base language (December 1996)Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Larsen, P.G.: The IFAD VDM-SL Toolbox Brochures. Technical report, Institute for Applied Datalogy, Forskerparken 10, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark (1994)Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Leveson, N.G., Heimdahl, M.P.E., Hildreth, H.H., Reese, J.D.: Requirements Specification for Process-Control Systems. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 20(9), 684–707 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Loucopoulos, P., Kavakli, E.: Enterprise modelling and the teleological approach to requirements engineering. International Journal of Intelligent and Cooperative Information Systems 4(1), 45–79 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Jarke., M., et al.: Requirements engineering: an integrated view of representation, process and domain. In: Sommerville, I., Paul, M. (eds.) Software Engineering - ESEC 1993- 4th European Software Engineering Conference Proceedings, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, pp. 100–114. Springer, Berlin (1993)Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Maiden, N.A.M., Sutcliffe, A.G.: Requirements critiquing using domain abstractions. In: First International Conference on Requirements Engineering (Cat-No.94TH0613-0), Colorado Springs, CO, USA, pp. 184–193. IEEE Comput. Soc. Press, Los Alamitos (1994)Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Manna, Z., Pnueli, A.: The Temporal Logic of Reactive Systems: Specifications. Addison Wesley, Reading (1991)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Manna, Z., Pnueli, A.: The Temporal Logic of Reactive Systems: Safety. Addison Wesley, Reading (1995)Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    McCluskey, T.L., Porteous, J.M., Naik, Y., Taylor, C.N., Jones, S.: A requirements capture method and its use in an air traffic control application. Software -Practice and Experience 25(1), 47–71 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Moulding, M., Smith, L.: Combining formal specification and CORE: an experimental investigation. Software Engineering Journal 10(2), 31–42 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Nikitchenko, N.: Towards Foundations of the General Theory of Transport Domains. Research Report 88, UNU/IIST, P.O.Box 3058, Macau (December 1996)Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Noussi, R.: An Efficient Construction of a Domain Theory for Resources Management: A Case Study. Research Report 107, UNU/IIST, P.O.Box 3058, Macau (May 1997)Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Nuseibeh, B., Kramer, J., Finkelstein, A.: Expressing the relationships between multiple views in requirements specification. In: 15th International Conference on Software Engineering (Cat. No.93CH3270-6), pp. 187–196. IEEE Comput. Soc. Press, Los Alamitos (1993)Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Shekaran, C., Garlan, D., et al.: The role of software architecture in requirements engineering. In: First International Conference on Requirements Engineering (Cat. No.94TH0613-0), Colorado Springs, CO, USA, pp. 239–245. IEEE Comput. Soc. Press, Los Alamitos (1994)Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Sørensen, E.V., Nordahl, J., Hansen, N.H.: From CSP Models to Markov Models: A Case Study. To be published in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Dept. of Computer Science, Technical University of Denmark, August 15 (1991)Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Michael Spivey, J.: An Introduction to Z and Formal Specifications. Software Engineering Journal 4(1) (January 1989)Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Michael Spivey, J.: The Z Notation: A Reference Manual. International Series in Computer Science. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1989)Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Tsai, J.J.P., Weigert, T., Jang, H.C.: A hybrid knowledge representation as a basis of requirement specification and reasoning. In: 2nd International IEEE Conference on Tools for Artificial Intelligence (Cat. No.90CH2915-7), pp. 70–76. IEEE Comput. Soc. Press, Los Alamitos (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Xinming, T.: Enquiring about Bus Transport-Formal Development using RAISE. Technical Report 83, UNU/IIST, P.O.Box 3058, Macau (September 1996)Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Yamamoto, S., Tadaumi, H., Ueno, M.: DREM: domain-based requirements engineering methodology. NTT R and D 45(8), 711–718 (1996) (In Japanese)Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Zave, P., Jackson, M.: Four dark corners of requirements engineering. ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology 6(1), 1–30 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Zave, P., Jackson, M.: Requirements for telecommunications services: an attack on complexity. In: Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Symposium on Requirements Engineering (Cat. No.97TB100086), pp. 106–117. IEEE Comput. Soc. Press, Los Alamitos (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    ZhiMing, L., Ravn, A.P., Sørensen, E.V., ChaoChen, Z.: A Probabilistic Duration Calculus. Technical report, Dept. of Computer Science, Technical University of Denmark (February 1992); Submitted for: 2nd Intl. Workshop on Responsive Systems, Japan (1992)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dines Bjørner
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Information TechnologyTechnical University of DenmarkLyngbyDenmark

Personalised recommendations