The Effects Of The Regulation System On The Structure And Dynamics Of Green Space In An Urban Landscape

The case of Kitakyushu City
  • T. Manabe
  • K. Ito
  • D. Isono
  • T. Umeno


The effects of a regulation system on conserving the green space were evaluated in Kitakyushu City, southern Japan. Nearly half of the city is under the Urbanization Control Area that should restrain urbanization, and about 30% of the city is specified as Scenic Zones and Green Conservation Areas where their use is restricted by a regulation system. Area of green spaces within the Urbanization Control Area decreased slightly from 1984 to 2001, although those within Urbanization Promotion Area decreased largely. The specification for the Urbanization Control Area, therefore, plays a role in conserving area of green spaces. Specifying Scenic Zones as well as Green Conservation Areas also have value in retaining green spaces. Some woodland was, however, transferred to residential areas within the Green Conservation Area. This decrease in woodlands was due to constructing a City Planning Road, suggesting that area of green spaces even within a Green Conservation Area depends on decisions made by the municipalities. The habitat function of the forests for dominant canopy and sub-canopy evergreen broad-leaved trees was also evaluated by examining the relationships between stem densities at different growth stage (seedling, sapling and mature). Success of seedling recruitment of Castanopsis cuspidate (Fagaceae), for which the seed-dispersal type is classified as chasing dispersal, was depended largely on the existence of conspecific mature trees. Thus, the forests with a low density of conspecific matures have low habitat function for the species even if safe-sites for seedling recruitment exist. There were no clear relationships between densities at each growth stage for Persea thunbergii, Neolitsea sericea, and Cinnamomum japonicumof the family Lauraceae that the seed-dispersal type is classified as endozoochory. This finding might suggest that the habitat function of the forests for these three was not controlled by the ‘dispersal limitation’ as seen in Castanopsisbut by the micro-environmental conditions of the forests.


Green Space Landscape Element Urban Green Space City Planning Habitat Function 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Forman, R.T.T. (1995). Land Mosaics- The Ecology of Region and Landscape. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  2. Fukamachi, K., Iida, S. and Nakashizuka, T. (1996). Landscape patterns and plant species diversity of forest reserves in the Kanto region, Japan. Vegetatio, 124, 107–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hong, S-K., Nakagoshi, N. and Kamada, M. (1995). Human impacts on pine-dominated vegetation in rural landscapes in Korea and western Japan. Vegetatio, 116, 161–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Iida, S. and Nakashizuka, T. (1995). Forest fragmentation and its effect on species diversity in sub-urban coppice forests in Japan. Forest Ecology and Management, 73, 197–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Imanishi, A., Imanishi, J., Murakami, K., Morimoto, Y. and Satomura, A. (2005). Herbaceous plant species richness and species distribution pattern at the precincts of shrines as non-forest greenery in Kyoto City. J. Jpn. Soc. Reveget. Tech., 31, 278–283. (In Japanese with English abstract.)Google Scholar
  6. Ishii, H.T., Iwasaki, A. and Sato, S. (2004). Seasonal variation of edge effects on the vegetation, light environment and microclimate of primary, secondary and artificial forest fragments in southeastern Hyogo Prefecture. Proceedings of the IUFRO International Workshop on Landscape Ecology 2004, Tsukuba, Japan.Google Scholar
  7. Kaku, J., Ito, K., Isono, D., Mitsuda, Y. and Umeno, T. (2004). Basic study about the evaluation of urban green and the ecological networks—A case study on Murasaki River basin in Kitakyushu. Kyushu J. Forest Research, 57, 163–166. (In Japanese)Google Scholar
  8. Kamada, M. and Nakagoshi, N. (1990). Patterns and processes of secondary vegetation at a farm village in southwestern Japan. Jpn. J. Ecol., 40, 137–150. (In Japanese with English synopsis.)Google Scholar
  9. Kamada, M. and Nakagoshi, N. (1996). Landscape structure and the disturbance regime at three rural regions in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. Landscape Ecology, 11(1), 15–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kamada, M., Nakagoshi, N. and Nehira, K. (1991). Pine forest ecology and landscape management: a comparative study in Japan and Korea. In N. Nakagoshi and F.B. Golley (Eds.), Coniferous Forest Ecology from an International Perspective (pp. 43–62). The Hague: SPB Academic.Google Scholar
  11. Kominami, Y., Sato, T., Takeshita, K., Manabe, T., Endo, A. and Noma, N. (2003). Classification of birddispersed plants by fruiting phenology, fruit size, and growth form in a primary lucidophyllous forest: an analysis, with implications for the conservation of fruit–bird interactions. Ornithological Science, 2, 3–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Manabe, T., Kashima, H. and Ito, K. (2003). Stand structure of a fragmented evergreen broad-leaved forest at a shrine and changes of landscape structure surrounding a suburban forest, in northern Kyushu. J. Jpn. Rev. Tec., 28, 438–447.Google Scholar
  13. Manabe, T., Nishimura, N., Miura, M. and Yamamoto, S. (2000). Population structure and spatial patterns for trees in a temperate old-growth evergreen broad-leaved forest in Japan. Plant Ecology, 151, 181–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mitsuda, Y., Manabe, T., Ito, K., Kashima, H. and Suzkuki, T. (2003). The methods of making the digital vegetation maps by using digital orthophotographs—In the case of the Yamada Green Park in Kitakyushu City. Bull. Kitakyushu Mus. Nat. Hist. Hum. Hist., Ser. A, 1, 57–65. (In Japanese with English abstract.)Google Scholar
  15. Murakami, K., Maenaka, H. and Morimoto, Y. (2005). Factors influencing species diversity of ferns and fern allies in fragmented forest patches in the Kyoto City Area. Landscape and Urban Planning, 70, 221–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Murcia, C. (1995). Edge effects in fragmented forests: implications for conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 10(2), 58–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ota, M. (Ed.). (1992). Nature of Yamada Park, Kitakyushu City, Japan. Kitakyushu, Kitakyushu Museum of Natural History.Google Scholar
  18. Senior, K. (2005). Resource efforts for the Satoyama. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 3(2), 68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Suzuki, T., Manabe, T., Ito, K. and Umeno, G. (2004). Analysis of landscape changes by using digital vegetation map in mid-northern region in Kitakyushu city. Bull. Kitakyushu Mus. Nat. Hist. Hum. Hist., Ser. A, 2, 79–85. (In Japanese with English abstract.)Google Scholar
  20. Tanouchi, H. and Yamamoto, S. (1995). Structure and regeneration of canopy species in an old-growth evergreen broad-leaved forest in Aya district, southwestern Japan. Vegetatio, 117, 51–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Manabe
    • 1
  • K. Ito
    • 2
  • D. Isono
    • 2
  • T. Umeno
    • 3
  1. 1.Kitakyushu Museum of Natural History and Human HistoryKitakyushuJapan
  2. 2.Department Civil Engineering Faculty of EngineeringKyushu Institute of TechnologyKitakyushuJapan
  3. 3.Graduate School of Civil EngineeringKyushu Institute of TechnologymKitakyushuJapan

Personalised recommendations