Landscape Ecological Approach In Oil Palm Land Use Planning And Management For Forest Conservation In Malaysia



Oil palm industry is one of the major revenue for economic development in Malaysia. Oil palm was introduced to Malaysia in 1911 and the first commercial planting began in 1917. Since then and combined with increasing demand of its product both at the local and international market, areas planted with oil palm has been expanded throughout the nation. In 2004, oil palm plantation covered approximately 9.9% of the total Malaysian land area. However, its expansion has been recognised intrude into forested areas. This situation has been debated as one of the major international issues that cause forest degradation and loss of biodiversity. To balance between economic importance and conservation of forested areas a practical approach in planning and managing oil palm land use is necessary. Landscape ecological approach is an emerging pathway to achieve the goal and increasingly recognised as tool in various aspects of planning and managing land use. In this chapter, the land use changes of this premier man-influenced area in Malaysia will be analysed. How landscape ecology concepts can be integratedinto planning and managing oil palm land use for forest conservation in Malaysia will be discussed.


Landscape Ecology Landscape Metrics Wetland Forest Forest Conservation Aggregation Index 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abdullah, A.R. 1995. Environmental pollution in Malaysia: trends and prospects. Trends in Analytical Chemistry,14, 191-198.Google Scholar
  2. Abdullah, S.A. 2003. Fragmented forest in tropical landscape: the case of the state of Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Environmental Sciences,15, 267-270.Google Scholar
  3. Abdullah, S.A. and Nakagoshi, N. 2006. Changes in landscape spatial pattern in the highly developing state of Selangor, peninsular Malaysia. Landscape and Urban Planning77, 263-275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Azrina, M.Z., Yap, C.K., Ismail, A.R., Ismail, A. and Tan, S.G. in press. Anthropogenic impacts on the distribution and biodiversity of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality of the Langat River, Peninsular Malaysia. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety.Google Scholar
  5. Casson, A. 2003. Oil Palm, Soybeans and Critical Habitat Loss. A Review Prepared for the WWF Forest Conservation Initiative.WWF Forest Conservation Initiative, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  6. Farina, A. 2002. Landscape Ecology in Action. Kluwer Academic Publisher, the Netherlands.Google Scholar
  7. Forman, R.T.T. 1995. Some general principles of landscape and regional ecology. Landscape Ecology,10, 133-142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Geist, H.J. and Lambin, E.F. 2002. Proximate causes and underlying driving forces of tropical deforestation. BioScience,52, 143-150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Goh, K.C. 1982. Environmental impact of economic development in Peninsular Malaysia: a review. Applied Geography,2, 3-16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gulink, H. and Wagendorp, T. 2002. References for fragmentation analysis of the rural matrix in cultural landscapes. Landscape and Urban Planning,58, 137-146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hartley, C.W.S. 1988. The Oil Palm. 3rd Edition. Longman, London.Google Scholar
  12. He, H.S., DeZonia, B.E. and Mladenoff, D.J. 2000. An aggregation index (AI) to quantify spatial patterns of landscapes. Landscape Ecology,15, 591-601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Herzog, F. and Lausch, A. 2001. Supplementing land-use statistics with landscape metrics: some methodological consideration. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 72, 37-50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hobbs, R. 1997. Future landscapes and the future of landscape ecology. Landscape and Urban Planning, 37, 1-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hobbs, R.J. 1993. Effects of landscape fragmentation on ecosystem processes in the Western Australia wheatbelt. Biological Conservation,64, 193-201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jaeger, J.A.G. 2000. Landscape division, splitting index, and effective mesh size: new measures of landscape fragmentation. Landscape Ecology,15, 115-130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jasmi, A. 1997. Wildlife Conservation Issues in the Langat Basin. Master Thesis (unpublished). Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.Google Scholar
  18. Kumar, R. 1986. The Forest Resources of Malaysia: Their Economics and Development. Oxford University Press Pte, Singapore.Google Scholar
  19. Lambin, E.F., Turner, B.L., Geist, H.J., Agbola, S.B., Angelsen, A., Bruce, J.W., Coomes, O.T., Dirzo,R., Fischer, G., Folke, C., George, P.S., Homewood, K., Imbernon, J., Leemans, R., Li, X., Moran, E.F., Mortimore, M., Ramakrishnan, P.S., Richards, J.F., Skånes, H., Steffen, W., Stone, G.D., Svedin, U., Veldkamp, T.A., Vogel, C. and Xu, J., 2001. The causes of land-use and land cover change: moving beyond the myths. Global Environmental Change,11, 261-269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lambin, E.F., Geist, H.J. and Lepers, E. 2003. Dynamics of land-use and land-cover change in tropical regions. Annual Review of Environment and Resources,28, 205-241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Leitao, A.B. and Ahern, J. 2002. Applying landscape ecological concepts and metrics in sustainable landscape planning. Landscape and Urban Planning,59, 65-93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lenz, R.J.M. and Stary, R. 1995. Landscape diversity and land use planning: a case study in Bavaria. Landscape and Urban Planning,31, 387-398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Li, X. and Yeh, A.G.-O. 2004. Analyzing spatial restructuring of land use patterns in a fast growing region using remote sensing and GIS. Landscape and Urban Planning, 69, 335-354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Norhayati, A., Abdullah, S.A., Shahrolnizah, A., Md-Zain, B.M., Shukor, M.N., Hazimin, H. and Nordin, M. 2004. Diversity and density of mammals in the peat swamp forests of the Langat Basin, Selangor, Malaysia. Journal of Malaysian Applied Biology, 33, 7-17.Google Scholar
  25. Okuda, T., Yoshida, K., Numata, S., Nishimura, S., Suzuki, M., Hashim, M., Miyasaku, N., Sugimoto, T., Tagashira, N. and Chiba, M. 2004. An ecosystem-management approach for CDM afforestation and reforestation activities: the need for an integration ecosystem assessment based on the valuation of ecosystem services for forested land. In Kyoto Mechanism and the Conservation of Tropical Forest Ecosystem. Okuda, T. and Matsumoto, Y. (Eds.), pp. 67-78. Proceedings of the International Symposium/Workshop on the Kyoto Mechanism and the Conservation of Tropical Forest Ecosystems, 29-30 January 2004, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan.Google Scholar
  26. Palmer, J.F., Lankhorst, J.R.K. 1998. Evaluating visible spatial diversity in the landscape. Landscape and Urban Planning43: 65-78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Riitters, K.H., O’Neill, R.V., Hunsaker, C.T., Wickham, J.D., Yankee, D.H., Timmins, S.P., Jones, K.B. and Jackson, B.L. 1995. A factor analysis of landscape pattern and structure metrics. Landscape Ecology,10, 23-39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Serneels, S. and Lambin, E.F. 2001. Proximate causes of land-use change in Narok District, Kenya: a spatial statistical model. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment, 85, 65-81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Turner, M.G. and Gardner, R.H. 1991. Quantitative Methods in Landscape Ecology. Springer-Verlag, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  30. Turner, M.G., Gardner, R.H., O’Neill, R.V. 2001. Landscape Ecology in Theory and Practice. Springer- Verlag, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  31. Verboom, J. and Wamelink, W. 2005. Spatial modelling in landscape ecology. In Issues and Perspectives in Landscape Ecology. Weins, J and Moss, M. (Eds.), pp. 79-89. Cambridge University Press, UK.Google Scholar
  32. Yusuf, M.A. and Nordin, M. 2003. River water quality assessment and ecosystem health: Langat River Basin, Selangor, Malaysia. In Managing for Healthy Ecosystems. Rapport, D.J., Lasley, W.L., Rolston, D.E., Nielson, N.O., Qualset, C.O., Damania, A.D. (Eds.), pp. 1395-1413. Lewis Publisher/CRC Press, USA.Google Scholar
  33. Zubaid, A. 1993. A comparison of the bat fauna between a primary and fragmented secondary forest in Peninsular Malaysia. Mammalia,57, 201-206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

    • 1
    • 2
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI)Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaSelangor DarulMalaysia
  2. 2.Graduate School for International Development and CooperationHiroshima University739-8529 Japan

Personalised recommendations