Advertisement

Dietary fats and age-related diseases

  • Kaustuv Bhattacharya
  • Suresh I.S. Rattan
Chapter
  • 918 Downloads

Abstract

Balanced diet, which includes fats and oils, is one of the important factors for attaining and maintaining a healthy life. Numerous clinical studies have shown the detrimental effects of trans- and saturated-fats in the origin and progression of various age-related diseases, such as coronary heart disease, diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. This article reviews the role of dietary lipids in various age-related diseases, and discusses the appropriate dietary fat requirements for the prevention of such diseases

Keywords

Polyunsaturated fatty acids saturated fats diseases antioxidants 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Akoh, C.C. (2002) Structured lipids. In: Food Lipids–Chemistry, Nutrition and Biotechnology. (Ed.: Akoh, CC), Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York, USA, 877–908.Google Scholar
  2. Bagdade, J.D., et al. (1990) Effects of omega-3 fish oils on plasma lipids, lipoprotein composition, and postheparin lipoprotein lipase in women with IDDM. Diabetes, 39: 426–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Baldwin, S., Parker, R.S. (1986) The effect of dietary fat and selenium on the development preneoplastic lesions in rat lever. Nutr Cancer, 8: 273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bankey, E.M., et al. (1989) Modulation of Kupffer cell membrane phospholipid function by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Lipid Res., 30: 1703–1710.Google Scholar
  5. Barnard, J.D., et al. (1990) Dietary trans fatty acids modulate erythrocyte membrane fatty acyl composition and insulin binding in monkeys. J Nutr. Biochem., 1: 190–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Berrino, F. (2002) Western diet and Alzheimer’s disease. Epidemiol. Prev., 26: 107–115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bhathena, S.J. (1992) Fatty acids and diabetes. In: Fatty Acids in Foods and Their Health Implications. (Ed.: Chow CK), Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, USA, 823–855.Google Scholar
  8. Birt, D.F., White, L.T., Choi, B. and Pelling, J.C. (1989) Dietary fats effects on the initiation and promotion of two-stage skin tumorigenesis in the SENCAR mouse. Cancer Res, 49: 4170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Birt, D.F., et al. (1990) Comparison of the effects of dietary beef tallow and corn oil on pancreatic carcinogenesis in the hamster model. Carcinogenesis, 11: 745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bittiner, S.B., Tucker, W.F., Cartwright, I. and Bleehen, S.S. (1988) A double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial of fish oil psoriasis. Lancet 1(8582): 378–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Black, H.S., Lenger, W., Phelps, A.W. and Thornby, J.I. (1983) Influence of dietary lipid upon ultraviolet carcinogenesis. Nutr. Cancer, 5: 59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Boissonneult, G.A., Hayek, M.G. (1992) Dietary fat, immunity, and inflammatory disease. In: Fatty Acids in Foods and Their Health Implications. (Ed.: Chow CK), Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, USA, 707–734.Google Scholar
  13. Bonanome, A., Grundy, S.M. (1988) Effect of dietary stearic acid on plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein levels. N. Engl. J. Med., 318: 1244–1248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Borkman, M., et al. (1993) The relation between insulin sensitivity and the fatty acid composition of skeletal-muscle phospholipids. N Eng J Med., 328: 238–244.Google Scholar
  15. Castelli, W.P., et al. (1986) Incidence of coronary heart disease and lipoprotein cholesterol levels: The Framingham Study. J Am Med Assoc., 256: 2835–8.Google Scholar
  16. Cater, N.B., Heller, H.J., Denke, M.A. (1997) Comparison of the effects of the medium-chain triglycerols, palm oil, and high oleic sunflower oil on plasma triacylglycerol fatty acids and lipid and lipoprotein concentration in humans. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 65: 41–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Caygill, C., Hill, M. (1995) Fish n-3 fatty acids and human colorectal and breast cancer mortality. Eur J Cancer Prev, 4: 329–332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cho, H.P., Nakamura, M., Clarke, S.D. (1999) Cloning, expression and fatty acid regulation of the mammalian Delta-6 desaturase. J. Biol. Chem., 274: 471–477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Choudhury, N., Tan, L., Truswell, A.S. (1995) Comparison of palm olein and olive oil: Effects on plasma lipids and vitamin E in young adults. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 61: 1043–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Chyou, P., Elaine, D., Eaker, D. (2000) Serum cholesterol concentrations and all-cause mortality in older people. Age and Ageing, 29: 69–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Connor, S.L., Connor, W.E. (1997) Are fish oils beneficial in the prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease? Am J Clin Nutr, 66: 1020–31.Google Scholar
  22. Conquer, J.A., et al. (2000) Fatty acid analysis of blood plasma of patients with Alzheimer’s disease, other types of dementia, and cognitive impairment. Lipids, 35: 1305–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Conroy, D.M., et al. (1986) The effects of dietary oils on the production of n-3 and n-6 metabolites of leukocyte 5-lipoxygenase in five rat strains. Biochim Biophysics Acta, 861: 457–462.Google Scholar
  24. Cooper, J.L. (2003) Dietary lipids in the aetiology of Alzheimer’s disease: implication for therapy. Drugs Aging, 20: 399–418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. De Lorgeril, M., Salen, P. (2004b) Alpha-linolenic acid and coronary heart disease. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc. Dis., 14: 162–9.Google Scholar
  26. De Lorgeril, M., Salen, P. (2004a) Use and misuse of dietary fatty acids for the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease. Reprod Nutr Dev., 44: 283–288.Google Scholar
  27. De Lorgeril, M., et al. (1999) Mediterranean diet, traditional risk factors, and the rate of cardiovascular complicationa after myocardial infarction: Final report of the Lyon Diet Heart Study. Circulation, 99: 779–785.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Demaisson, L., Sergiel, J.P., Moreau, D. and Grynberg, A. (1994) Influence of the phospholipid n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio on mitochondrial oxidative metabolism before and after myocardial ischemia. Biochim Biophys. Acta, 1366: 69–78.Google Scholar
  29. Denke, M.A., Grundy, S.M. (1992) Comparison of effects of lauric acid and palmitic acid on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 56: 895–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Dolecek, T.A. (1992) Epidemiological evidence of relationships between dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and mortality in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Proc Soc Exp Biol. Med., 200: 177–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Fogh, K. (1990) Lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid in psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and experimental arthritis. Dan. Med. Bull., 37: 289–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Formo, M.W. (1979) Fats in the diet. In: Bailey’s Industrial Oil & Fat Products. (Ed. Hui), 4th edition, 1, New York, John Wiley & Sons, 233–270.Google Scholar
  33. Galati, G., O’Brien, P.J. (2004) Potential toxicity of flavonoids and other dietary phenolics: significance for their chemopreventive and anticancer properties. Free Radic Biol Med., 37: 287–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Gil, A. (2002) Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory diseases. Biomed Pharmacother, 56: 388–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Glauert, P.H. (1992) Dietary fatty acids and cancer. In: Fatty Acids in Foods and Their Health Implications. (Ed.: Chow CK), Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, USA, 753–768.Google Scholar
  36. Grande, F., Andersson, J.T., Keys, A. (1970) Comparison of effects of palmitic and stearic acids in the diet on serum cholesterol in man. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 23: 1184–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Haan, M.N., Wallace, R. (2004) Can dementia be prevented? Brain aging in a population-based context, Annu Rev Public Health, 25: 1–24.Google Scholar
  38. Han, S.N., et al. (2002) Effect of hydrogenated and saturated, relative to polyunsaturated, fat on immune and inflammatory responses of adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia. J. Lipid Res., 43: 445–452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Hano, O., et al. (1995) Reduced threshold for myocardial cell calcium intolerance in the rat heart with aging. Am. J. Physiol., 269: 1607–1612.Google Scholar
  40. Hardman, W.E. (2004) n-3 fatty acids and cancer therapy. J Nutr., 134: 3427–3430.Google Scholar
  41. Harris, W.S., Connor, W.E., McMurry, M.P. (1983) The comparative reductions of the plasma lipids and lipoproteins by dietary polyunsaturated fats: Salmon oil versus vegetable oils. Metabolism, 32: 179–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Harris, W.S. (1989) Fish oils and plasma lipids and lipoprotein metabolism in humans: A critical review. J. Lipid Res., 30: 785–807.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Harris, W.S. (1996) Do omega-3 fatty acids worsen glycemic control in NIDDM? ISSFAL Newsletter, 3: 6–9.Google Scholar
  44. Hastert, R.C. (1996) Hydrogenation. In: Bailey’s industrial oil & fat products. (Ed.: Hui) Vol 3, John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA, 212–300.Google Scholar
  45. Howard-Williams, J., et al. (1985) Polyunsaturated fatty acids and diabetic retinopathy. Br. J. Opthalmol., 69: 15.Google Scholar
  46. Hunter, J.E. (1992) Safety and health effects of isomeric fatty acids. In: Fatty Acids in Foods and Their Health Implications. (Ed.: Chow CK), Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York, USA, 857–868.Google Scholar
  47. Jamal, G.A., Carmichael, H. (1990) The effect of gamma-linolenic acid on human diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Diabetic Med., 7: 319–323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. James, M.J., Proudman, S.M., Cleland, L.G. (2003) Dietary n-3 fats as adjunctive therapy in a prototypic inflammatory disease: issues and obstacles for use in rheumatoid arthritis, Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 68: 399–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Kasim, S.E., et al. (1988) Effects of omega-3 fish oils on lipid metabolism, glycemic control and blood pressure in type II diabetic patients. J Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 67: 1–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Katan, M.B., Zock, P.L., Mensink, R.P. (1995) Trans fatty acids and their effects on lipoproteins in humans. Annu. Rev. Nutr., 15: 473–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Kelly, D.S. (2001) Modulation of human immune and inflammatory responses by dietary fatty acids. Nutrition, 17: 669–673.Google Scholar
  52. Keys, A., Andersen, J.T., Grande, F. (1957) Prediction of serum cholesterol responses of man to change in fats in the diet, Lancet 2: 959.Google Scholar
  53. Keys, A., Andersen, J.T. and Grande F. (1959) ‘Serum cholesterol in man: dietary fat and intrinsic responsiveness’, Circulation, 19: 201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Keys, A., Andersson, J.T., Grande, F. (1965) Serum cholesterol response to changes in the diet IV. Particular saturated fatty acids in the diet. Metabolism, 14: 776–87.Google Scholar
  55. Kolonel, L.N. (1987) Fat and colon cancer: how firm is the epidemiological evidence? Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 45: 336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Kremer, J.M., et al. (1985) Effects of manipulation of dietary fatty acids on clinical manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis, Lancet 1(8422): 184–187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Kristott, J. (2003) High-oleic oils – how good they are for frying? Lipid Technology, 15: 29–2.Google Scholar
  58. Kyle, D.J., Schaefer, E., Patton, G., Beiser, A. (1999) Low serum docosahexaenoic acid is a significant risk factor for Alzheimer’s dementia. Lipids, 34: 245.Google Scholar
  59. Lands, W.E.M. (ed) (1986) Fish and Human Health, Academic Press, Inc., Orlando, Florida.Google Scholar
  60. Lands, W.E.M. (2004) Essential fatty acid metabolism to self-healing agents. In: Healthful Lipids. (Eds.: Akoh CC and Lai O), AOCS Press, Champaign, Illinois.Google Scholar
  61. Lefkowith, J., et al. (1990) Prevention of diabetes in the BB rat by essential fatty acid deficiency. Relationship between physiological and biochemical changes. J Exp Med., 171: 729–743.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Leifert, W.R., Jahangiri, A., Saint, D.A., McMurchie, E.J. (2000) Effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids on contractility, Na(+) and K(+) currents in a rat cardiomyocyte model of arrhythmia. J. Nutr. Biochem., 11: 382–392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Luchsinger, J.A., Mayeux, R. (2004) Dietary factors and Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet Neurol., 3: 579–587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Lyon, J.L., et al. (1987) Energy intake: its relationship to colon cancer risk, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 78: 853.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Magaro, M., et al. (1988) Influence of diet with different lipid composition on neutrohil chemiluminescence and disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rhem. Dis., 47: 793–796.Google Scholar
  66. Marshall, L.A., Johnston, P.V. (1983) The effect of dietary essential fatty acid in the rat on fatty acid profiles of immunocompetent cell populations. Lipids, 23: 623–625.Google Scholar
  67. Martin, M.J., et al. (1986) Serum cholesterol, blood pressure, and mortality: implications from a cohort 361,662 men. Lancet. 2: 933–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Mensink, R.P., Plat, J., Temme EHM. (2002) Dietary fats and coronary heart disease. In.: Food Lipids-Chemistry, Nutrition and Biotechnology. (Ed.: Akoh, CC.), Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, USA, 603–36.Google Scholar
  69. Morris, M.C., et al. (2003) Consumption of fish and n-3 fatty acids and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol., 60: 940–946.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Mozaffarian, D., et al. (2004) Trans fatty acids and systemic inflammation in heart failure. Am J Clin Nutr, 80: 1521–1525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Ng, T.K., et al. (1992) Dietary palmitic acid and oleic acids exert similar effects on serum cholesterol and lipoprotein profiles in normocholesterolemic men and women. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 11: 383–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Norell, S.E., et al. (1986) Diet and pancreatic cancer: a case-control study. Am. J Epidemiol., 124: 894PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. O’Connor, T.P., et al. (1989) Effect of dietary omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, on development of azaserine-induced prenoplastic lesions in rat pancreas. J Natl. Cancer Inst., 81: 858.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Pandalai, P.K., et al. (1996) The effects of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids on in Vitro prostate cancer growth. Anticancer Res, 16: 815–820.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Parillo, M., Riccardi, G. (2004) Diet composition and the risk of type 2 diabetes: epidemiological and clinical evidence. Br J Nutr., 92: 7–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Pepe, S., Tsuchiya, N., Lakatta, E., Hansford, R. (1999) PUFA and aging modulate cardiac mitochondrial membrane lipid composition and Ca2+ activation of PDH. Am. J. Phsiol., 276: 149–158.Google Scholar
  77. Pepe, S. (2005) Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on age-related changes in cardiac mitochondrial membranes. Experimental Gerontology., 40: 369–376.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Phillipson, R., Ward, R. (1985) Effects of fatty acids on Na+/ Ca2+ exchange and calcium permeability of cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles. J. Biol. Chem., 260: 9666–9671.Google Scholar
  79. Pienta, K.J., Esper, P.S. (1993) Risk factors for prostate cancer. Annals Int Med, 118: 793–803.Google Scholar
  80. Prasad, M.R., Lovell, M.A., Yatin, M., Dhillon, H., Markesbery, W.R. (1998) Regional membrane phospholipid alterations in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurochem. Res., 23: 81–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Prisco, D., et al. (1989) Altered membrane fatty acid composition and increased thromboxane A2 generation in platelets from patients with diabetes. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, Essent. Fatty Acids., 35: 15–23.Google Scholar
  82. Reddy, B.S., Sugie, S. (1998) Effect of different levels of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in F344 rats. J Natl. Cancer Inst, 77: 815.Google Scholar
  83. Rillaerts, E.G., Engelmann, G.J., Van Camp, K.M., De Leeuw, I. (1989) Effect of omega-3 fatty acids in diet type I diabetic subjects on lipid values and hemorheological parameters. Diabetes, 38: 1412–1416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Rivellese, A.A., Lilli, S. (2003) Quality of dietary fatty acids, insulin sensitivity and type 2 diabetes. Biomed Pharmacother., 57: 84–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Robert, L.S. (1990) Impact of dietary fat on human health. In: Omega-3 fatty Acids in Health and Diseases. (Eds.: Lees, SR., Karel, M.) Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, 1–38.Google Scholar
  86. Roynette, C.E., et al. (2004) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and colon cancer prevention. Clinical Nutr., 23: 139–151.Google Scholar
  87. Söderburg, M., Edlund, C., Kristensson, K., Dallner, G. (1991) Fatty acid composition of brain phospholipids in aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Lipids, 26: 421–428.Google Scholar
  88. Sakaguchi, M., et al. (1984) Effect of dietary unsaturated and saturated fatty acids on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Cancer Res, 44: 1472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Salmeron, J., et al. (2001) Dietary fat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Am J Clin Nutr., 73: 1019–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Schmidt, E.B., et al. (1989) The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on lipids, haemostasis, neutrophil and monocyte chemotaxis in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Intern. Med. Suppl., 225: 201–206.Google Scholar
  91. Simopoulos, A.P. (1999) Essential fatty acids in health and chronic diseases. Am J Clin Nutr., 70(suppl): 560–569.Google Scholar
  92. Sinclair, H.M. (1962) Essential fatty acids. In: Clinical Nutrition. 2nd ed. (Ed.: N. Jolliffe), Harper, New York, USA, 206–215.Google Scholar
  93. Singer, P., Honigman, G., Schiliack, V. (1980) Decrease in eicosapentaenoic acid in fatty liver of diabetic subjects. Prostaglandins Med., 5: 183–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Singer, P., Honigman, G., Schiliack, V. (1984) Negative correlation of eicosapentaenoic acid and lipid accumulation in hepatocytes of diabetes. Biomed. Biochem. Acta., 43: 438–442.Google Scholar
  95. Solfrizzi, V., Panza, F., Capruso, A. (2003) The role of diet in cognitive decline. J Neural Transm., 110: 95–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Sperling, R.I., et al. (1987) Effects of dietary supplementation with marine fish oil on leukocyte lipid mediator generation and function in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum, 30: 988–997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Sprecher, H., Lutharia, D.L., Mohammed, B.S., Baykousheva, S.P. (1995) Re-evaluation of the pathways for the biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids. J. Lipid Res, 36: 2471–2477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Storlien, L.H., et al. (1987) Fish oil prevents insulin resistance induced by high-fat feeding in rats. Science, 237: 885.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Swanson, J., Likesh, B., Kinsella, J. (1989) Ca2+/Mg2+ATPase of mouse cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum is affected by membrane n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content. J. Nutr., 119: 364–372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Taffet, G., et al. (1993) The calcium uptake of the rat heart sarcoplasmic reticulum is altered by dietary lipid. J. Membr. Biol., 131: 35–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Tarstedt, M., Larko, O., Molin, L., Wennberg, A.M. (2005) Increasing number of skin cancer cases-also among the younger. Lakartidningen, 102: 1972–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Temme, E.H.M., Mensink, R.P., Hornstra, G. (1996) Comparison of the effects of diets enriched in lauric, palmitic, or oleic acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins in healthy women and men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 63: 897–903.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Terano, T., et al. (1989) The effect of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid in patients with psoriasis. Adv. Prostaglandin Thromboxane Leukotriene Res., 17: 880–885.Google Scholar
  104. Terano, T., et al. (1999) Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation improves the moderately severe dementia from thrombotic cerebrovascular diseases. Lipids, 34: 345.Google Scholar
  105. van Doormaal, J.J., et al. (1984) The plasma and erythrocyte fatty acid composition of poorly controlled, insulin-dependent (type I) diabetic patients and the effect of improved metabolic control. Clin. Chim. Acta., 144: 203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Vessby, B. (2000) Dietary fat and insulin resistance. Br J Nutr., 83 Suppl 1: 91–96.Google Scholar
  107. Watson, R.R., Zibadi, S., Vazquez, R., Larson, D. (2005) Nutritional regulation of immunosenescence for heart health. J Nutr Biochem., 16: 85–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Weggemans, R.M., Rudrum, M., Trautwein, E.A. (2004) Intake of ruminant versus industrial trans fatty acids and rise of coronary heart disease. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol., 6: 390–7.Google Scholar
  109. Wu, D., et al., (1999) Effect of dietary supplementation with black currant seed oil on the immune response of healthy elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr, 70: 536–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Yazawa, K. (2004) Importance of ‘health foods’, EPA and DHA for preventive medicine. Rinsho Byori., 52: 249–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Yin, H., Porter, N.A. (2005) New insights regarding the autoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Antioxid Redox Signal, 7: 170–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Young, G., Conquer, J. (2005) Omega-3 fatty acids and neuropsychiatric disorders. Reprod Nutr Dev., 45: 1–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Zhao, G. (2004) Dietary alpha-linolenic acid reduces inflammatory and lipid cardiovascular risk factors in hypercholesterolemic men and women. Nutr., 134: 2991–7.Google Scholar
  114. Ziboh, V.A., et al. (1986) Effects of dietary supplementation of fish oil on neutrophil and epidermal fatty acids. Modulation of clinical course of psoriatic subjects. Arch. Dermatol., 122: 1277–1282.Google Scholar
  115. Zock, P.L., et al. (1997) Butter, Margarine and Serum Lipoproteins. Atherosclerosis, 131: 7–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kaustuv Bhattacharya
    • 1
  • Suresh I.S. Rattan
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Cellular AgeingDepartment of Molecular BiologyUniversity of Aarhus

Personalised recommendations