Advertisement

Prostate Disease in the Aging Male

  • Anne R. Simoneau
Chapter
  • 911 Downloads

Abstract

Prostate cancer is commonly found in older men. Whether its presence is clinically significant, requiring screening or treatment has been intensely debated, fueled by the indolent nature of many cancers as well as the competing cardiovascular mortality of this age group. Risk factors include age, race and family history. Diet has been linked to prostate cancer risk and is being investigated both for understanding the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and for use in supplements in preventing prostate cancer. In the past two decades the advent of serum marker, Prostate Specific Antigen [PSA], and definitions of pre- neoplastic lesions have brought new understandings and questions to the etiology and epidemiology of prostate cancer. This chapter will focus on the function of the prostate, pathological definitions and grading, PSA and its role in the debate, epidemiology and risk factors of prostate cancer. Current treatments and prevention trials will be reviewed

Keywords

Cancer prostate aging old age neoplasia 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albanes, D., et al. (1996) Alpha-Tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements and lung cancer incidence in the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cancer prevention study: effects of base-line characteristics and study compliance. J Natl Cancer Inst, 88(21): 1560–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Albertsen, P.C., et al. (1998) Competing risk analysis of men aged 55 to 74 years at diagnosis managed conservatively for clinically localized prostate cancer. Jama, 280(11): 975–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Albertsen, P.C., Hanley, J.A. and Fine, J. (2005) 20-year outcomes following conservative management of clinically localized prostate cancer. Jama, 293(17): 2095–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Allen, E.A., Kahane, H. and Epstein, J.I. (1998) Repeat biopsy strategies for men with atypical diagnoses on initial prostate needle biopsy. Urology, 52(5): 803–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Allen, D.J., et al. (2004) Does body-coil magnetic-resonance imaging have a role in the preoperative staging of patients with clinically localized prostate cancer? BJU Int, 94(4): 534–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Andriole, G., et al. (2004) Chemoprevention of prostate cancer in men at high risk: rationale and design of the reduction by dutasteride of prostate cancer events (REDUCE) trial. J Urol, 172(4 Pt 1): 1314–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Andriole, G., et al. (2005) The effects of 5alpha-reductase inhibitors on the natural history, detection and grading of prostate cancer: current state of knowledge. J Urol, 174(6): 2098–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Andriole, G.L., et al. (2005) Prostate Cancer Screening in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial: findings from the initial screening round of a randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst, 97(6): 433–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Angwafo, F.F., 3rd, et al. (2003) High-grade intra-epithelial neoplasia and prostate cancer in Dibombari, Cameroon. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis, 6(1): 34–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Attar-Bashi, N.M., Frauman, A.G. and Sinclair, A.J. (2004) Alpha-linolenic acid and the risk of prostate cancer. What is the evidence? J Urol, 171(4): 1402–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Baade, P.D., et al. (2005) Communicating prostate cancer risk: what should we be telling our patients? Med J Aust, 182(9): 472–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bartsch, G., et al. (2001) Prostate cancer mortality after introduction of prostate-specific antigen mass screening in the Federal State of Tyrol, Austria. Urology, 58(3): 417–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bianco, F.J., Jr., et al. (2002) Prostate cancer stage shift has eliminated the gap in disease-free survival in black and white American men after radical prostatectomy. J Urol, 168(2): 479–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bill-Axelson, A., et al. (2005) Radical prostatectomy versus watchful waiting in early prostate cancer. N Engl J Med, 352(19): 1977–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Borboroglu, P.G., et al. (2001) Repeat biopsy strategy in patients with atypical small acinar proliferation or high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia on initial prostate needle biopsy. J Urol, 166(3): 866–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Borgono, C.A. and Diamandis, E.P. (2004) The emerging roles of human tissue kallikreins in cancer. Nat Rev Cancer, 4(11): 876–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Boring, C.C., Squires, T.S. and Tong, T. (1992) Cancer statistics, 1992. CA Cancer J Clin, 42(1): 19–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bostwick, D.G., et al. (2004) Does finasteride alter the pathology of the prostate and cancer grading? Clin Prostate Cance, 2(4): 228–35.Google Scholar
  19. Bostwick, D.G. (1988) Premalignant lesions of the prostate. Semin Diagn Pathol, 5(3): 240–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bostwick, D.G. (1996) Prospective origins of prostate carcinoma. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and atypical adenomatous hyperplasia. Cancer, 78(2): 330–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bostwick, D.G. and Brawer, M.K. (1987) Prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia and early invasion in prostate cancer. Cancer, 59(4): 788–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Brausi, M., et al. (2004) Immediate radical prostatectomy in patients with atypical small acinar proliferation. Over treatment? J Urol, 172(3): 906–8; discussion 908–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Brawer, M.K., et al. (1991) Significance of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia on prostate needle biopsy. Urology, 38(2): 103–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Breslow, N., et al. (1977) Latent carcinoma of prostate at autopsy in seven areas. The International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyons, France. Int J Cancer, 20(5): 680–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Carpten, J., et al. (2002) Germline mutations in the ribonuclease L gene in families showing linkage with HPC1. Nat Genet, 30(2): 181–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Carroll, P., et al. (2001) Prostate-specific antigen best practice policy–part II: prostate cancer staging and post-treatment follow-up. Urology, 57(2): 225–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Carter, B.S., et al. (1993) Hereditary prostate cancer: epidemiologic and clinical features. J Urol, 150(3): 797–802.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Carver, B.S., et al. (2005) Gleason grade remains an important prognostic predictor in men diagnosed with prostate cancer while on finasteride therapy. BJU Int, 95(4): 509–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Catalona, W.J., et al. (1994) Comparison of prostate specific antigen concentration versus prostate specific antigen density in the early detection of prostate cancer: receiver operating characteristic curves. J Urol, 152(6 Pt 1): 2031–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Catalona, W.J., et al. (2004) Serum pro-prostate specific antigen preferentially detects aggressive prostate cancers in men with 2 to 4 ng/ml prostate specific antigen. J Urol, 171(6 Pt 1): 2239–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Chan, T.Y. and Epstein, J.I. (1999) Follow-up of atypical prostate needle biopsies suspicious for cancer. Urology, 53(2): 351–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Chan, D.W., et al. (1987) Prostate-specific antigen as a marker for prostatic cancer: a monoclonal and a polyclonal immunoassay compared. Clin Chem, 33(10): 1916–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Chan, J.M., et al. (2001) Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk in the Physicians’ Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr, 74(4): 549–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Chan, J.M., Gann, P.H. and Giovannucci, E.L. (2005) Role of diet in prostate cancer development and progression. J Clin Oncol, 23(32): 8152–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Cheville, J.C., Reznicek, M.J. and Bostwick, D.G. (1997) The focus of “atypical glands, suspicious for malignancy” in prostatic needle biopsy specimens: incidence, histologic features, and clinical follow-up of cases diagnosed in a community practice. Am J Clin Pathol, 108(6): 633–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Christen, W.G., Gaziano, J.M. and Hennekens, C.H. (2000) Design of Physicians’ Health Study II–a randomized trial of beta-carotene, vitamins E and C, and multivitamins, in prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and eye disease, and review of results of completed trials. Ann Epidemiol, 10(2): 125–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Clark, L.C., et al. (1996) Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin. A randomized controlled trial. Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Study Group. Jama, 276(24): 1957–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Clark, L.C., et al. (1998) Decreased incidence of prostate cancer with selenium supplementation: results of a double-blind cancer prevention trial. Br J Urol, 81(5): 730–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Cooperberg, M.R., Moul, J.W. and Carroll, P.R. (2005) The changing face of prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol, 23(32): 8146–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. D’Amico, A.V., et al. (2004) Prostate specific antigen doubling time as a surrogate end point for prostate cancer specific mortality following radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy. J Urol, 172(5 Pt 2): S42–6; discussion S46–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. D’Amico, A.V., et al. (2004) Preoperative PSA velocity and the risk of death from prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. N Engl J Med, 351(2): 125–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Dagnelie, P.C., et al. (2004) Diet, anthropometric measures and prostate cancer risk: a review of prospective cohort and intervention studies. BJU Int, 93(8): 1139–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Danley, K.L., et al. (1995) Prostate cancer: trends in mortality and stage-specific incidence rates by racial/ethnic group in Los Angeles County, California (United States). Cancer Causes Control, 6(6): 492–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Davidson, D., et al. (1995) Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia is a risk factor for adenocarcinoma: predictive accuracy in needle biopsies. J Urol, 154(4): 1295–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Dhom, G. (1983) Epidemiologic aspects of latent and clinically manifest carcinoma of the prostate. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol, 106(3): 210–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Diblasio, C.J. and Kattan, M.W. (2003) Use of nomograms to predict the risk of disease recurrence after definitive local therapy for prostate cancer. Urology, 62 Suppl 1: 9–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Donn, A.S. and Muir, C.S. (1985) Prostatic cancer: some epidemiological features. Bull Cancer, 72(5): 381–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Drago, J.R., Mostofi F.K. and Lee Fred. (1989) Introductory Remarks and Workshop Summary. Urology, 34(6): 2–3.Google Scholar
  49. Edwards, S.M. and Eeles, R.A. (2004) Unravelling the genetics of prostate cancer. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet, 129(1): 65–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Feneley, M.R., et al. (1997) Prevalence of prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (PIN) in biopsies from hospital practice and pilot screening: clinical implications. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis, 1(2): 79–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Ferlay, J., B.F., Pisani P. and Parkin D.M. (2004) Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence Worldwide. IARC CancerBase. No. 5(version 2.0).Google Scholar
  52. Fowler, F.J., Jr., et al. (2000) Comparison of recommendations by urologists and radiation oncologists for treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer. Jama, 283(24): 3217–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Fowler, F.J., Jr., et al. (1995) Effect of radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer on patient quality of life: results from a Medicare survey. Urology, 45(6): 1007–13; discussion 1013–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Fowler, F.J., Jr., et al. (1996) Outcomes of external-beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer: a study of Medicare beneficiaries in three surveillance, epidemiology, and end results areas. J Clin Oncol, 14(8): 2258–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Fowler, J.E., Jr., et al. (2000) Predictors of first repeat biopsy cancer detection with suspected local stage prostate cancer. J Urol, 163(3): 813–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Giovannucci, E.L., et al. (2005) A prospective study of physical activity and incident and fatal prostate cancer. Arch Intern Med, 165(9): 1005–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Giovannucci, E. (2005) The epidemiology of vitamin D and cancer incidence and mortality: a review (United States). Cancer Causes Control, 16(2): 83–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Gleason, D.F. (1966) Classification of prostatic carcinomas. Cancer Chemother Rep, 50(3): 125–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Glover, F.E., Jr., et al. (1998) The epidemiology of prostate cancer in Jamaica. J Urol, 159(6): 1984–6; discussion 1986–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Gokden, N., et al. (2005) High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in needle biopsy as risk factor for detection of adenocarcinoma: current level of risk in screening population. Urology, 65(3): 538–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Goode, E.L., Ulrich, C.M. and Potter, J.D. (2002) Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes and associations with cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 11(12): 1513–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Grignon, D.J. and Sakr, W.A. (1996) Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia of the prostate: a critical review. Eur Urol, 30(2): 206–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Gsur, A., Feik, E. and Madersbacher, S. (2004) Genetic polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk. World J Urol, 21(6): 414–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Habel, L.A., Zhao, W. and Stanford, J.L. (2002) Daily aspirin use and prostate cancer risk in a large, multiracial cohort in the US. Cancer Causes Control, 13(5): 427–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Han, M., et al. (2001) Long-term biochemical disease-free and cancer-specific survival following anatomic radical retropubic prostatectomy. The 15-year Johns Hopkins experience. Urol Clin North Am, 28(3): 555–65.Google Scholar
  66. Hebert, J.R., et al. (1998) Nutritional and socioeconomic factors in relation to prostate cancer mortality: a cross-national study. J Natl Cancer Inst, 90(21): 1637–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Helpap, B.G., Bostwick, D.G. and Montironi, R. (1995) The significance of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia for the development of prostate carcinoma. An update. Virchows Arch, 426(5): 425–34.Google Scholar
  68. Hoedemaeker, R.F., et al. (1997) Comparison of pathologic characteristics of T1c and non-T1c cancers detected in a population-based screening study, the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer. World J Urol, 15(6): 339–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Holmberg, L., et al. (2002) A randomized trial comparing radical prostatectomy with watchful waiting in early prostate cancer. N Engl J Med, 347(11): 781–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Horninger, W., et al. (2005) Screening for prostate cancer: updated experience from the Tyrol study. Can J Urol, 12 Suppl 1: 7–13; discussion 92–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Hugosson, J., Aus, G. and Norlen, L. (1996) Surveillance is not a viable and appropriate treatment option in the management of localized prostate cancer. Urol Clin North Am, 23(4): 557–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Iczkowski, K.A., MacLennan, G.T. and Bostwick, D.G. (1997) Atypical small acinar proliferation suspicious for malignancy in prostate needle biopsies: clinical significance in 33 cases. Am J Surg Pathol, 21(12): 1489–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Iczkowski, K.A., et al. (1998) Diagnosis of “suspicious for malignancy” in prostate biopsies: predictive value for cancer. Urology, 51(5): 749–57; discussion 757–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Jackson, M.A., et al. (1980) Characterization of prostatic carcinoma among blacks: a comparison between a low-incidence area, Ibadan, Nigeria, and a high-incidence area, Washington, DC. Prostate, 1(2): 185–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Jackson, M.A., et al. (1981) Factors involved in the high incidence of prostatic cancer among American blacks. Prog Clin Biol Res, 53: 111–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Jemal, A., et al. (2005) Cancer statistics, 2005. CA Cancer J Clin, 55(1): 10–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Johns, L.E. and Houlston, R.S. (2003) A systematic review and meta-analysis of familial prostate cancer risk. BJU Int, 91(9): 789–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Kattan, M.W., et al. (2003) Counseling men with prostate cancer: a nomogram for predicting the presence of small, moderately differentiated, confined tumors. J Urol, 170(5): 1792–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Khan, M.A., et al. (2003) Long-term cancer control of radical prostatectomy in men younger than 50 years of age: update 2003. Urology, 62(1): 86–91; discussion 91–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Klotz, L. (2005) Active surveillance for prostate cancer: for whom? J Clin Oncol, 23(32): 8165–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Kristal, A.R., et al. (2002) Associations of energy, fat, calcium, and vitamin D with prostate cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 11(8): 719–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Kronz, J.D., et al. (2001) Predicting cancer following a diagnosis of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia on needle biopsy: data on men with more than one follow-up biopsy. Am J Surg Pathol, 25(8): 1079–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Kuller, L.H., et al. (2004) Elevated prostate-specific antigen levels up to 25 years prior to death from prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 13(3): 373–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Kundu, S.D., et al. (2004) Potency, Continence And Complications In 3,477 Consecutive Radical Retropubic Prostatectomies. J Urol, 172(6, Part 1 of 2): 2227–2231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Labrie, F., et al. (1999) Screening decreases prostate cancer death: first analysis of the 1988 Quebec prospective randomized controlled trial. Prostate, 38(2): 83–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Labrie, F., et al. (2004) Screening decreases prostate cancer mortality: 11-year follow-up of the 1988 Quebec prospective randomized controlled trial. Prostate, 59(3): 311–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Latil, A.G., et al. (2001) Prostate carcinoma risk and allelic variants of genes involved in androgen biosynthesis and metabolism pathways. Cancer, 92(5): 1130–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Lee, M.M., et al. (1998) Case-control study of diet and prostate cancer in China. Cancer Causes Control, 9(6): 545–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Lefkowitz, G.K., et al. (2001) Is repeat prostate biopsy for high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia necessary after routine 12-core sampling? Urology, 58(6): 999–1003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Lefkowitz, G.K., et al. (2002) Followup interval prostate biopsy 3 years after diagnosis of high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia is associated with high likelihood of prostate cancer, independent of change in prostate specific antigen levels. J Urol, 168(4 Pt 1): 1415–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Leitzmann, M.F., et al. (2004) Dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and the risk of prostate cancer. Am J Clin Nutr, 80(1): 204–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Li, H., et al. (2004) A prospective study of plasma selenium levels and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst, 96(9): 696–703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Li, H., et al. (2005) Manganese superoxide dismutase polymorphism, prediagnostic antioxidant status, and risk of clinical significant prostate cancer. Cancer Res, 65(6): 2498–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Lin, D.D., et al. (2005) Predictors of short postoperative prostate-specific antigen doubling time for patients diagnosed during PSA era. Urology, 65(3): 528–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Lippman, S.M., et al. (2005) Designing the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). J Natl Cancer Inst, 97(2): 94–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Luo, J., et al. (2003) Decreased gene expression of steroid 5 alpha-reductase 2 in human prostate cancer: implications for finasteride therapy of prostate carcinoma. Prostate, 57(2): 134–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Lu-Yao, G.L. and Yao, S.L. (1997) Population-based study of long-term survival in patients with clinically localised prostate cancer. Lancet, 349(9056): 906–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Mallick, S., Blanchet, P. and Multigner, L. (2005) Prostate cancer incidence in guadeloupe, a French Caribbean archipelago. Eur Urol, 47(6): 769–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Mann, T. (1974) Secretory function of the prostate, seminal vesicle and other male accessory organs of reproduction. J Reprod Fertil, 37(1): 179–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Marker, P.C., et al. (2003) Hormonal, cellular, and molecular control of prostatic development. Dev Biol, 253(2): 165–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. McNeal, J.E. (1981) The zonal anatomy of the prostate. Prostate, 2(1): 35–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. McNeal, J.E. and Bostwick, D.G. (1986) Intraductal dysplasia: a premalignant lesion of the prostate. Hum Pathol, 17(1): 64–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Merck VIOXX Timeline, in http://media.corporateir.net/media_files/irol/73/73184/VIOXX_Timeline.pdf.(2004).Google Scholar
  104. Messing, E.M., et al. (1999) Immediate hormonal therapy compared with observation after radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy in men with node-positive prostate cancer. N Engl J Med, 341(24): 1781–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Messing, E. (2003) The timing of hormone therapy for men with asymptomatic advanced prostate cancer. Urol Oncol, 21(4): 245–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Mian, B.M., et al. (2002) Predictors of cancer in repeat extended multisite prostate biopsy in men with previous negative extended multisite biopsy. Urology, 60(5): 836–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Mikolajczyk, S.D. and Rittenhouse, H.G. (2004) Tumor-associated forms of prostate specific antigen improve the discrimination of prostate cancer from benign disease. Rinsho Byori, 52(3): 223–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Montironi, R., et al. (2004) Karyometry detects subvisual differences in chromatin organization state between cribriform and flat high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Mod Pathol, 17(8): 928–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Montironi, R., et al. (2005) Incidentally detected prostate cancer in cystoprostatectomies: pathological and morphometric comparison with clinically detected cancer in totally embedded specimens. Hum Pathol, 36(6): 646–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Moore, C.K., et al. (2005) Prognostic significance of high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and atypical small acinar proliferation in the contemporary era. J Urol, 173(1): 70–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Muir, C.S., Nectoux, J. and Staszewski, J. (1991) The epidemiology of prostatic cancer. Geographical distribution and time-trends. Acta Oncol, 30(2): 133–40.Google Scholar
  112. Nakayama, M., et al. (2004) GSTP1 CpG island hypermethylation as a molecular biomarker for prostate cancer. J Cell Biochem, 91(3): 540–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Narain, V., et al. (2001) How accurately does prostate biopsy Gleason score predict pathologic findings and disease free survival? Prostate, 49(3): 185–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Nelson, W.G., et al. (2004) The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer. J Urol, 172(5 Pt 2): S6–11; discussion S11–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Nguyen, E.V. (2003) Cancer in Asian American males: epidemiology, causes, prevention, and early detection. Asian Am Pac Isl J Health, 10(2): 86–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Orozco, R., et al. (1998) Observations on pathology trends in 62,537 prostate biopsies obtained from urology private practices in the United States. Urology, 51(2): 186–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Ostrander, E.A., Markianos, K. and Stanford, J.L. (2004) Finding prostate cancer susceptibility genes. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet, 5: 151–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Palapattu, G.S., et al. (2005) Prostate carcinogenesis and inflammation: emerging insights. Carcinogenesis, 26(7): 1170–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Pan, C.X., et al. (2004) PC cell-derived growth factor expression in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and prostatic adenocarcinoma. Clin Cancer Res, 10(4): 1333–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Pareek, G. and Nakada, S.Y. (2005) The current role of cryotherapy for renal and prostate tumors. Urol Oncol, 23(5): 361–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Partin, A.W. and Carter, H.B. (1996) The use of prostate-specific antigen and free/total prostate-specific antigen in the diagnosis of localized prostate cancer. Urol Clin North Am, 23(4): 531–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Partin, A.W., et al. (1993) The use of prostate specific antigen, clinical stage and Gleason score to predict pathological stage in men with localized prostate cancer. J Urol, 150(1): 110–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Partin, A.W., et al. (1997) Combination of prostate-specific antigen, clinical stage, and Gleason score to predict pathological stage of localized prostate cancer. A multi- institutional update. Jama, 277(18): 1445–51.Google Scholar
  124. Partin, A.W., et al. (2001) Contemporary update of prostate cancer staging nomograms (Partin Tables) for the new millennium. Urology, 58(6): 843–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Petros, J.A., et al. (2005) mtDNA mutations increase tumorigenicity in prostate cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 102(3): 719–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Plaskon, L.A., et al. (2003) Cigarette smoking and risk of prostate cancer in middle-aged men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 12(7): 604–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Platz, E.A., De Marzo, A.M. and Giovannucci, E. (2004) Prostate cancer association studies: pitfalls and solutions to cancer misclassification in the PSA era. J Cell Biochem, 91(3): 553–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Platz, E.A., et al. (2005) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of prostate cancer in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 14(2): 390–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Postma, R., et al. (2004) Lesions predictive for prostate cancer in a screened population: first and second screening round findings. Prostate, 61(3): 260–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Potosky, A.L., et al. (2004) Five-year outcomes after prostatectomy or radiotherapy for prostate cancer: the prostate cancer outcomes study. J Natl Cancer Inst, 96(18): 1358–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Pound, C.R., et al. (1997) Prostate-specific antigen after anatomic radical retropubic prostatectomy. Patterns of recurrence and cancer control. Urol Clin North Am, 24(2): 395–406.Google Scholar
  132. Pound, C.R., et al. (1999) Natural history of progression after PSA elevation following radical prostatectomy. Jama, 281(17): 1591–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Prentice, R.L. and Sheppard, L. (1990) Dietary fat and cancer: consistency of the epidemiologic data, and disease prevention that may follow from a practical reduction in fat consumption. Cancer Causes Control, 1(1): 81–97; discussion 99–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Pu, Y.S., et al. (2004) Changing trends of prostate cancer in Asia. Aging Male, 7(2): 120–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Qian, J., Jenkins, R.B. and Bostwick, D.G. (1998) Determination of gene and chromosome dosage in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma. Anal Quant Cytol Histol, 20(5): 373–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Qian, J., Jenkins, R.B. and Bostwick, D.G. (1999) Genetic and chromosomal alterations in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Eur Urol, 35(5–6): 479–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Raviv, G., et al. (1996) Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia: influence of clinical and pathological data on the detection of prostate cancer. J Urol, 156(3): 1050–4; discussion 1054–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Rebbeck, T.R., et al. (1998) Modification of clinical presentation of prostate tumors by a novel genetic variant in CYP3A4. J Natl Cancer Inst, 90(16): 1225–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Rishi, I., et al. (2003) Prostate cancer in African American men is associated with downregulation of zinc transporters. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol, 11(3): 253–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Roehl, K.A., et al. (2004) Cancer progression and survival rates following anatomical radical retropubic prostatectomy in 3,478 consecutive patients: long-term results. J Urol, 172(3): 910–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Rose, D.P., Boyar, A.P. and Wynder, E.L. (1986) International comparisons of mortality rates for cancer of the breast, ovary, prostate, and colon, and per capita food consumption. Cancer, 58(11): 2363–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Rubin, M.A., et al. (2005) Effects of long-term finasteride treatment on prostate cancer morphology and clinical outcome. Urology, 66(5): 930–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Ryan, C.J. and Eisenberger, M. (2005) Chemotherapy for hormone-refractory prostate cancer: now it’s a question of “when?”. J Clin Oncol, 23(32): 8242–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Sakr, W.A. and Grignon, D.J. (1998) Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and atypical adenomatous hyperplasia. Relationship to pathologic parameters, volume and spatial distribution of carcinoma of the prostate. Anal Quant Cytol Histol, 20(5): 417–23.Google Scholar
  145. Sakr, W.A. and Partin, A.W. (2001) Histological markers of risk and the role of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Urology, 57(4 Suppl 1): 115–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Sakr, W.A., et al. (1993) The frequency of carcinoma and intraepithelial neoplasia of the prostate in young male patients. J Urol, 150(2 Pt 1): 379–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Sakr, W.A., et al. (1994) High grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and prostatic adenocarcinoma between the ages of 20–69: an autopsy study of 249 cases. In Vivo, 8(3): 439–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Sakr, W.A., et al. (1996) Age and racial distribution of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Eur Urol, 30(2): 138–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Sakr, W.A., et al. (2000) Epidemiology and molecular biology of early prostatic neoplasia. Mol Urol, 4(3): 109–13; discussion 115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Sakr, W.A. (1999) Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia: A marker for high-risk groups and a potential target for chemoprevention. Eur Urol, 35(5–6): 474–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Sakr, W.A. (2004) Epidemiology of prostate cancer and its precursors. Mod Pathol.Google Scholar
  152. San Francisco, I.F., et al. (2003) Clinical management of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia as diagnosed by extended needle biopsies. BJU Int, 91(4): 350–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Sanchez-Chapado, M., et al. (2003) Prevalence of prostate cancer and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in Caucasian Mediterranean males: an autopsy study. Prostate, 54(3): 238–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Sandblom, G., et al. (2004) Clinical consequences of screening for prostate cancer: 15 years follow-up of a randomised controlled trial in Sweden. Eur Urol, 46(6): 717–23; discussion 724.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Schoonen, W.M., et al. (2005) Alcohol consumption and risk of prostate cancer in middle-aged men. Int J Cancer, 113(1): 133–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Sim, H.G. and Cheng C.W. (2005) Changing demography of prostate cancer in Asia. Eur J Cancer, 41(6): 834–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Sinha, A.A., et al. (2004) Microvessel density as a molecular marker for identifying high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia precursors to prostate cancer. Exp Mol Pathol, 77(2): 153–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Smith, R.A., Cokkinides, V. and Eyre, H.J. (2005) American Cancer Society Guidelines for the Early Detection of Cancer. CA Cancer J Clin, 2005, 55(1): 31–44; quiz 55–6.Google Scholar
  159. Smith, J.A., Jr. and Herrell, S.D. (2005) Robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy: do minimally invasive approaches offer significant advantages? J Clin Oncol, 23(32): 8170–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Speight, J.L. and Roach, M. (2005) 3rd, Radiotherapy in the management of clinically localized prostate cancer: evolving standards, consensus, controversies and new directions. J Clin Oncol, 23(32): 8176–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Steiner, M.S. and Pound, C.R. (2003) Phase IIA clinical trial to test the efficacy and safety of Toremifene in men with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Clin Prostate Cancer, 2(1): 24–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Steiner, M.S., B.R., Barnette G., et al. (2004) Evaluation of Acapodene in reducing prostate cancer incidence in high risk men. in Third Annual AACR Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research.Seattle, WA.Google Scholar
  163. Steiner, M.S. (2003) High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and prostate cancer risk reduction. World J Urol, 21(1): 15–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Stratton, M.S., et al. (2003) Selenium and prevention of prostate cancer in high-risk men: the Negative Biopsy Study. Anticancer Drugs, 14(8): 589–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Taylor, S.H., et al. (2005) Inadequacies of the current American Joint Committee on cancer staging system for prostate cancer. Cancer.Google Scholar
  166. Thomas, L.N., et al. (2003) 5alpha-reductase type 1 immunostaining is enhanced in some prostate cancers compared with benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelium. J Urol, 170(5): 2019–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Thompson, I.M., et al. (2004) Prevalence of prostate cancer among men with a prostate-specific antigen level < or =4.0 ng per milliliter. N Engl J Med, 350(22): 2239–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. van der Cruijsen-Koeter, I.W., et al. (2005) Comparison of screen detected and clinically diagnosed prostate cancer in the European randomized study of screening for prostate cancer, section rotterdam. J Urol, 174(1): 121–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. van der Kwast, T.H., et al. (2003) Guidelines for processing and reporting of prostatic needle biopsies. J Clin Pathol, 56(5): 336–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Vij, U. and Kumar, A. (2004) Phyto-oestrogens and prostatic growth. Nal Med J India, 17(1): 22–6.Google Scholar
  171. Virtamo, J., et al. (2003) Incidence of cancer and mortality following alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation: a postintervention follow-up. Jama, 290(4): 476–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Visvanathan, K., et al. (2004) Association among an ornithine decarboxylase polymorphism, androgen receptor gene (CAG) repeat length and prostate cancer risk. J Urol, 171(2 Pt 1): 652–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Walsh, P.C., Partin, A.W. and Epstein, J.I. (1994) Cancer control and quality of life following anatomical radical retropubic prostatectomy: results at 10 years. J Urol, 152(5 Pt 2): 1831–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Wei, J.T., et al. (2002) Comprehensive comparison of health-related quality of life after contemporary therapies for localized prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol, 20(2): 557–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Weinstein, M.H. and Epstein, J.I. (1993) Significance of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia on needle biopsy. Hum Pathol, 24(6): 624–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Whittemore, A.S., et al. (1995) Prostate cancer in relation to diet, physical activity, and body size in blacks, whites, and Asians in the United States and Canada. J Natl Cancer Inst, 87(9): 652–61.Google Scholar
  177. Wills, M.L., et al. (1997) Incidence of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in sextant needle biopsy specimens. Urology, 49(3): 367–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Wilt, T.J. and Brawer, M.K. (1997) The Prostate Cancer Intervention Versus Observation Trial (PIVOT). Oncology (Williston Park), 11(8): 1133–9; discussion 1139–40, 1143.Google Scholar
  179. Wolf, J.S., Jr., et al. (1995) The use and accuracy of cross-sectional imaging and fine needle aspiration cytology for detection of pelvic lymph node metastases before radical prostatectomy. J Urol, 153 (3 Pt 2): 993–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Wu, C.L., et al. (2004) Analysis of alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (P504S) expression in high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Hum Pathol, 35(8): 1008–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Xu, J., et al. (2002) Germline mutations and sequence variants of the macrophage scavenger receptor 1 gene are associated with prostate cancer risk. Nat Genet, 32(2): 321–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Yatani, R., et al. (1982) Geographic pathology of latent prostatic carcinoma. Int J Cancer, 29(6): 611–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Yoshizawa, K., et al. (1998) Study of prediagnostic selenium level in toenails and the risk of advanced prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst, 90(16): 1219–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Zaridze, D.G., Boyle, P. and Smans, M. (1984) International trends in prostatic cancer. Int J Cancer, 33(2): 223–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anne R. Simoneau
    • 1
  1. 1.Associate Clinical Professor of UrologyUniversity of CaliforniaIrvine, 101 The City Drive Rt 81CA 92868

Personalised recommendations