The Near-Earth Solar Wind

  • M. L. Goldstein
  • J. P. Eastwood
  • R. A. Treumann
  • E. A. Lucek
  • J. Pickett
  • P. Décréau
Part of the Space Sciences Series of ISSI book series (SSSI, volume 20)


Solar Wind Magnetic Cloud Heliospheric Current Sheet Astronomical Unit Slow Solar Wind 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Axford, W. I. and J. F. McKenzie: 1996, ‘Implications of observations of the solar wind and corona for solar wind models’. Astrophysics and Space Science 243(1), 1–3.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Balogh, A., C. M. Carr, M. H. Acuña, M. W. Dunlop, T. J. Beek, P. Brown, K.-H. Fornacon, E. Georgescu, K.-H. Glassmeier, J. Harris, G. Musmann, T. Oddy, and K. Schwingenschuh: 2001, ‘The Cluster Magnetic Field Investigation: overview of in-flight performance and initial results’. Ann. Geophys. 19, 1207–1217.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Batchelor, G. K.: 1970, Theory of Homogeneous Turbulence. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Baumjohann, W., R. A. Treumann, E. Georgescu, G. Haerendel, K.-H. Fornacon, and U. Auster: 1999, ‘Waveform and packet structure of lion roars’. Ann. Geophys. 17, 1528–1534.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Behlke, R., M. Andre, S. D. Bale, J. S. Pickett, C. A. Cattell, E. Lucek, and A. Balogh: 2004, ‘Solitary structures associated with Short Large-Amplitude Magnetic Structures (SLAMS) upstream of the Earth’s quasi-parallel bow shock’. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L16805, doi:10.1029/2004GL019524.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. Belcher, J. W. and L. Davis: 1971, ‘Large-amplitude Alfvén waves in the interplanetary medium, 2’. J. Geophys. Res. 76, 3534.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bieber, J. W., W. Wanner, and W. H. Matthaeus: 1996, ‘Dominant two-dimensional solar wind turbulence with implications for cosmic ray transport’. J. Geophys. Res. 101(A2), 2511–2522.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. Biermann, L.: 1951, ‘Kometenschweife und solare Korpuskularstrahlung’. Zeitschrift für Astrophysik 29, 274.ADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Bostrom, R., G. Gustafsson, B. Holback, G. Holmgren, H. Koskinen, and P. Kintner: 1988, ‘Characteristics of solitary waves and weak double layers in the magnetospheric plasma’. Phys. Res. Lett. 61, 82.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. Burlaga, L. F.: 1988, ‘Magnetic clouds and force-free fields with constant alpha’. J. Geophys. Res. 93, 7212–7224.ADSGoogle Scholar
  11. Burlaga, L. F.: 1995, Interplanetary Magnetohydrodynamics. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Burlaga, L. F. and J. F. Lemaire: 1978, ‘Inter-planetary magnetic holes-Theory’. J. Geophys. Res. 83(NA11), 5157–5160.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Burlaga, L. F. and N. F. Ness: 1969, ‘Tangential discontinuities in the solar wind’. Sol. Phys. 9, 467–477.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. Chanteur, G. and F. Mottez: 1993, ‘Geometrical Tools for Cluster Data Analysis’. In: Spatio-temporal analysis for resolving plasma turbulence (START), ESA WWP-047. European Space Agency, pp. 341–344.Google Scholar
  15. Coleman, P. J.: 1966, ‘Hydromagnetic waves in the interplanetary medium’. Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 207.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. Crooker, N. U., J. T. Gosling, and S. W. Kahler: 1998, ‘Magnetic clouds at sector boundaries’. J. Geophys. Res. 103(1), 301–306.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. Crooker, N. U., C. L. Huang, S. M. Lamassa, D. E. Larson, S. W. Kahler, and H. E. Spence: 2004a, ‘Heliospheric plasma sheets’. J. Geophys. Res. 109(A3), A03107, doi:10.1029/2003JA010170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Crooker, N. U., S. W. Kahler, D. E. Larson, and R. P. Lin: 2004b, ‘Large-scale magnetic field inversions at sector boundaries’. J. Geophys. Res. 109(A3), A03108, doi:10.1029/2003JA010278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dunlop, M. W., A. Balogh, and K. H. Glassmeier: 2002a, ‘Four-point Cluster application of magnetic field analysis tools: The discontinuity analyzer’. J. Geophys. Res. 107(A11), 1385, doi:10.1029/2001JA0050089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dunlop, M. W., A. Balogh, K. H. Glassmeier, and P. Robert: 2002b, ‘Four-point Cluster application of magnetic field analysis tools: The Curlometer’. J. Geophys. Res. 107(A11), 1384, doi:10.1029/2001JA0050088.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dunlop, M. W., D. J. Southwood, K.-H. Glassmeier, and F. M. Neubauer: 1988, ‘Analysis of multipoint magnetometer data’. Adv. Space Res. 8(9–10), 273–277.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  22. Eastwood, J. P., A. Balogh, M.W. Dunlop, T. S. Horbury, and I. Dandouras: 2002a, ‘Cluster observations of fast magnetosonic waves in the terrestrial foreshock’. Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 2046, doi: 10.1029/2002GL015582.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. Eastwood, J. P., A. Balogh, M. W. Dunlop, and C. W. Smith: 2002b, ‘Cluster observations of the heliospheric current sheet and an associated magnetic flux rope and comparisons with ACE’. J. Geophys. Res. 107(A11), 1365, doi:10.1029/2001JA0009158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fitzenreiter, R. J. and L. F. Burlaga: 1978, ‘Structure of current sheets in magnetic holes at 1-AU’. J. Geophys. Res. 83, 5579–5585.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Franz, J. A., P. M. Kintner, and J. S. Pickett: 1998, ‘POLAR observations of coherent electric field structures’. Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1277–1280.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  26. Fränz, M., T. S. Horbury, V. Génot, O. Moullard, H. Rème, I. Dandouras, A. N. Fazakerley, A. Korth, and F. Frutis-Alfaro: 2003, ‘Solitary waves observed by Cluster in the solar wind’. In: M. Velli, R. Bruno, and F. Malara (eds.): Solar Wind Ten: Proceedings of the Tenth International Solar Wind Conference. American Institute of Physics, pp. 562–565.Google Scholar
  27. Gary, S.: 1993, Theory of Space Plasma Microinstabilities. Cambridge: Cambridge Atmos. Space Science Series.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gombosi, T. I., K. G. Powell, D. L. De Zeeuw, C. R. Clauer, K. C. Hansen, W. B. Manchester, A. J. Ridley, I. I. Roussev, I. V. Sokolov, Q. F. Stout, and G. Toth: 2004, ‘Solution-adaptive magnetohydrodynamics for space plasmas: Sun-to-Earth simulations’. Computing in Science and Engineering 6(2), 14–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gopalswamy, N., Y. Hanaoka, T. Kosugi, R. P. Lepping, J. T. Steinberg, S. Plunkett, R. A. Howard, B. J. Thompson, J. Gurman, G. Ho, N. Nitta, and H. S. Hudson: 1998, ‘On the relationship between coronal mass ejections and magnetic clouds’. Geophys. Res. Lett. 25(14), 2485–2488.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  30. Gosling, J. T., M. F. Thomsen, S. J. Bame, T. G. Onsager, and C. T. Russell: 1990, ‘The electron edge of the low latitude boundary layer during accelerated flow events’. Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 1833–1836.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Grant, H. L., R. W. Stewart, and A. Moilliet: 1962, ‘Turbulence spectra from a tidal channel’. J. Fluid Mech. 12, 241.CrossRefADSzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  32. Gringauz, K. I., V. V. Bezrukikh, V. D. Ozerov, and R. E. Ribchinsky: 1960, ‘Study of the interplanetary high energy electrons and solar corpuscular radiation by means of three electrode traps for charged particles on the second Soviet cosmic rocket’. Soviet Phys. Doklady 53, 61.Google Scholar
  33. Horbury, T.: 1999, ‘Cluster-II Analysis of Turbulence using Correlation Functions’. In: Cluster-II Workshop Multiscale/Multipoint Plasma Measurements, Vol. SP-449. Imperial College, London, UK, p. 98.Google Scholar
  34. Horbury, T. S., D. Burgess, M. Fränz, and C. J. Owen: 2001, Three spacecraft observations of solar wind discontinuities’. Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 677–680.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. Hundhausen, A. J.: 1995, ‘The SolarWind’. In: M. G. Kivelson and C. T. Russell (eds.): Introduction to Space Physics. Cambridge University Press, pp. 91–128.Google Scholar
  36. Israelevich, P. L., T. I. Gombosi, A. I. Ershkovich, K. C. Hansen, C. P. T. Groth, D. L. DeZeeuw, and A. G. Powell: 2001, ‘MHD simulation of the three-dimensional structure of the heliospheric current sheet’. Astronomy & Astrophysics 376(1), 288–291.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  37. Jokipii, J. R., E. H. Levy, and W. B. Hubbard: 1977, ‘Effects of particle drift on cosmic-ray transport. I. General properties, application to solar modulation’. Astrophys. J. 213, 861–868.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  38. Jones, G. H., A. Rees, A. Balogh, and R. J. Forsyth: 2002, ‘The draping of heliospheric magnetic fields upstream of coronal mass ejecta’. Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2001GL014110.Google Scholar
  39. Khurana, K. K., E. L. Kepko, M. G. Kivelson, and R. C. Elphic: 1996, ‘Accurate determination of magnetic field gradients from four-point vector measurements-II: Use of natural constraints on vector data obtained from four spinning spacecraft’. IEEE Trans. Mag. 32(5), 5193–5205.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  40. Knetter, T., F. M. Neubauer, T. Horbury, and A. Balogh: 2004, ‘Four-point discontinuity observations using Cluster magnetic field data: A statistical survey’. J. Geophys. Res. 109(A18), A06102, doi:10.1029/2003JA010099.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kolmogorov, A.: 1941, ‘The local structure of turbulence in incompressible viscous fluid for very large Reynolds’ numbers’. Compte rendus (Dokl.) de l’Academie des sciences de l’URSS 30, 301–305.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  42. Lepping, R. P. and K. W. Behannon: 1980, ‘Magnetic field directional discontinuities: 1. Minimum variance errors’. J. Geophys. Res. 85, 4695–4703.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lepping, R. P., J. A. Jones, and L. F. Burlaga: 1990, ‘Magnetic field structure of interplanetary magnetic clouds at 1 AU’. J. Geophys. Res. 95(8), 11957–11965.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Low, B. C.: 2001, ‘Coronal mass ejections, magnetic flux ropes, and solar magnetism’. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 25141–25163.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  45. Lucek, E. A., D. Constantinescu, M. L. Goldstein, J. Pickett, J. L. Pinçon, F. Sahraoui, R. Treumann, S. N. Walker, and P. Décréau: 2005, ‘The Magnetosheath’. Space Sci. Rev. this issue.Google Scholar
  46. Mangeney, C., C. Salem, C. Lacombe, J.-L. Bougeret, C. Perche, R. Manning, P.-J. Kellogg, K. Goetz, J. Monson, and J.-M. Bosqued: 1999, ‘WIND observations of coherent electrostatic waves in the solar wind’. Ann. Geophys. 17, 307–320.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Matsumoto, H., H. Kojima, T. Miyatake, Y. Omura, M. Okada, I. Nagano, and M. Tsutsui: 1994, ‘Electrostatic solitary waves (ESW) in the magnetotail: BEN wave forms observed by GEOTAIL’. Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2915–2918.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  48. Matthaeus, W. H. and M. L. Goldstein: 1982a, ‘Measurement of the rugged invariants of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence’. J. Geophys. Res. 87, 6011.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Matthaeus, W. H. and M. L. Goldstein: 1982b, ‘Stationarity of magnetohydrodynamic fluctuations in the solar wind’. J. Geophys. Res. 87, 10347.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Matthaeus, W. H., M. L. Goldstein, and J. H. King: 1986, ‘An interplanetary field ensemble at 1 AU’. J. Geophys. Res. 91, 59.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Matthaeus, W. H., M. L. Goldstein, and D. A. Roberts: 1990, ‘Evidence for the presence of quasi-two-dimensional nearly incompressible fluctuations in the solar wind’. J. Geophys. Res. 91, 20673–20683.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Moffatt, H.: 1978, Magnetic Field Generation in Electrically Conducting Fluids. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Moldwin, M. B., S. Ford, R. P. Lepping, J. A. Slavin, and A. Szabo: 2000, ‘Small-scale magnetic flux ropes in the solar wind’. Geophys. Res. Lett. 27(1), 57–60.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  54. Moldwin, M. B., J. L. Phillips, J. T. Gosling, E. E. Scime, D. J. Mccomas, a. Balogh, and R. J. Forsyth: 1995, ‘Ulysses Observation of a Noncoronal Mass Ejection Flux Rope-Evidence of Interplanetary Magnetic Reconnection’. J. Geophys. Res. 100(A10), 19903–19910.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  55. Monin, A. S. and A. M. Yaglom: 1975, Statistical Fluid Mechanics: Mechanics of Turbulence, Vol. 2. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  56. Ness, N. F., C. S. Scearce, and S. Canarano: 1966, ‘Preliminary results from Pioneer 6 magnetic field experiment’. J. Geophys. Res. 71, 3305–3313.Google Scholar
  57. Neugebauer, M., D. R. Clay, B. E. Goldstein, B. T. Tsurutani, and R. D. Zwicki: 1984, ‘A reexamination of rotational and tangential discontinuities in the solar wind’. J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5395–5408.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Panchev, S.: 1971, Random Functions and Turbulence. New York: Pergammon.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  59. Parker, E. N.: 1958, ‘Dynamics of the interplanetary gas and magnetic fields’. Astrophys. J. 128, 664.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  60. Pickett, J. S., L.-J. Chen, S. W. Kahler, O. Santolik, D. A. Gurnett, B. T. Tsurutani, and A. Balogh: 2004, ‘Isolated electrostatic structures observed through the Cluster orbit: Relationship to magnetic field strength’. Ann. Geophys. 22, 2515–2523.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pokhotelov, O. A., R. Z. Sagdeev, M. A. Balikhin, and R. A. Treumann: 2004, ‘The mirror instability at finite ion-Larmor radius wavelengths’. J. Geophys. Res. 109, A09213, doi:10.1029/2004JA010568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rees, A.: 2002, ‘Ulysees observations of magnetic clouds in the 3-D heliosphere’. Thesis/dissertation, Imperial College, University of London.Google Scholar
  63. Richardson, I. G., E. W. Cliver, and H. V. Cane: 2001, ‘Sources of geomagnetic storms for solar minimum and maximum conditions during 1972–2000’. Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 2569–2572.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  64. Riley, P., J. A. Linker, and Z. Mikic: 2002, ‘Modeling the heliospheric current sheet: Solar cycle variations’. J. Geophys. Res. 107(A7).Google Scholar
  65. Roberts, D. A., M. L. Goldstein, and A. Deane: 2002, ‘Three-Dimensional MHD Simulation of Solar Wind Structure’. In: M. Velli, R. Bruno, and F. Malara (eds.): Solar Wind 10, Vol. 679. Pisa, Italy, p. 133.Google Scholar
  66. Roberts, D. A., M. L. Goldstein, L. W. Klein, and W. H. Matthaeus: 1987a, ‘Origin and evolution of fluctuations in the solar wind: Helios observations and Helios-Voyager comparisons’. J. Geophys. Res. 92, 12,023.ADSGoogle Scholar
  67. Roberts, D. A., L.W. Klein, M. L. Goldstein, and W. H. Matthaeus: 1987b, ‘The nature and evolution of magnetohydrodynamic fluctuations in the solar wind: Voyager observations’. J. Geophys. Res. 92, 11021.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Schwartz, S.: 1998, ‘Shock and discontinuity normals, Mach numbers, and related parameters’. In: G. Paschmann and P. W. Daly (eds.): Analysis Methods for Multi-Spacecraft Data, ISSI SR-001. ESA Publications Division, pp. 249–270.Google Scholar
  69. Smith, C.W.: 2002, ‘The geometry of turbulent magnetic fluctuations at high heliographic latitudes’. In: M. Velli, R. Bruno, and F. Malara (eds.): Solar Wind 10, Vol. 679. Pisa, Italy, p. 413.Google Scholar
  70. Smith, E. J.: 1973, ‘Identification of interplanetary tangential and rotational discontinuities’. J. Geophys. Res. 78, 2054–2063.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Smith, E. J.: 1990, ‘The Heliospheric Current Sheet and modulation of galactic cosmic rays’. J. Geophys. Res. 95, 18731–15743.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Smith, E. J.: 2001, ‘The heliospheric current sheet’. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 15819–15831.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  73. Snyder, C. W. and M. Neugebauer: 1966, ‘The Relation of Mariner-2 Plasma Data to Solar Phenomena’. In: The Solar Wind. pp. 25–32.Google Scholar
  74. Sonnerup, B. U. Ö. and L. J. Cahill: 1967, ‘Magnetopause structure and attitude from Explorer 122 observations’. J. Geophys. Res. 72, 171–183.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sonnerup, B. U. Ö. and M. Scheible: 1998, ‘Minimum and Maximum Variance Analysis’. In: G. Paschmann and P. W. Daly (eds.): Analysis Methods for Multi-Spacecraft Data, ISSI SR-001. ESA Publications Division, pp. 185–220.Google Scholar
  76. Taylor, G. I.: 1938, ‘The spectrum of turbulence’. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 164, 476.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Temerin, M., K. Cerny, W. Lotko, and F. S. Mozer: 1982, ‘Observations of double layers and solitary waves in the auroral plasma’. Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1175–1179.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  78. Treumann, R. A., C. H. Jaroschek, O. D. Constantinescu, R. Nakamura, O. A. Pokhotelov, and E. Georgescu: 2004, ‘The strange physics of low frequency mirror mode turbulence in the high temperature plasma of the magnetosheath’. Nonlin. Proc. Geophys. 11, 647–657.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Tsurutani, B., G. Lakhina, J. Pickett, F. Guarnieri, N. Lin, and B. Goldstein: 2005, ‘Nonlinear Alfvn Waves, Discontinuities, Proton Perpendicular Acceleration, and Magnetic Holes/Decreases in Interplanetary Space and the Magnetosphere: Intermediate Shocks?’. Nonlinear Proc. Geophys. in press.Google Scholar
  80. Tsurutani, B. T. and C. M. Ho: 1999, ‘A review of discontinuities and Alfven waves in interplanetary space: Ulysses results’. Rev. Geophys. 37(4), 517–541.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  81. Tu, C.-Y. and E. Marsch: 1995, ‘MHD structures, waves and turbulence in the solar wind: Obsevations and theories’. Space Sci. Rev. 73, 1–210.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  82. Turner, J. M., L. F. Burlaga, N. F. Ness, and J. F. Lemaire: 1977, ‘Magnetic holes in solar-wind’. J. Geophys. Res. 82(13), 1921–1924.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Unti, T. W. and M. Neugebauer: 1968, ‘Alfvén waves in the solar wind’. Phys. Fluids 11, 563.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  84. Usmanov, A. V. and M. L. Goldstein: 2003, ‘A tilted-dipole MHD model of the solar corona and solar wind’. J. Geophys. Res. 108(A9).Google Scholar
  85. Usmanov, A. V., M. L. Goldstein, B. P. Besser, and J. M. Fritzer: 2000, ‘A global MHD solar wind model with WKB Alfven waves: Comparison with Ulysses data’. J. Geophys. Res. 105(A6), 12675–12695.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  86. Velli, M., R. Bruno, and F. Malara (eds.): 2002, Solar Wind 10, Vol. 679. Pisa, Italy: AIP.Google Scholar
  87. Webb, D. F. and R. A. Howard: 1994, ‘The solar cycle variation of coronal mass ejections and the solar wind mass flux’. J. Geophys. Res. 99, 4201–4220.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  88. Wilcox, J. M. and N. F. Ness: 1965, ‘Extension of Photospheric Magnetic Field into Interplanetary Space’. Astronomical Journal 70(5), 333.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  89. Winterhalter, D., M. Neugebauer, B. Goldstein, and E. J. Smith: 1994, ‘Ulysses field and plasma observations of magnetic holes in the solar wind and their relation to mirror-mode structures’. J. Geophys. Res. 99, 23371–23381.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. L. Goldstein
    • 1
  • J. P. Eastwood
    • 1
  • R. A. Treumann
    • 2
  • E. A. Lucek
    • 3
  • J. Pickett
    • 4
  • P. Décréau
    • 5
  1. 1.NASA Goddard Space Flight CenterGreenbeltUSA
  2. 2.Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische PhysikGarchingGermany
  3. 3.Space and Atmospheric Physics, The Blackett LaboratoryImperial College LondonLondonUK
  4. 4.Department of Physics and AstronomyThe University of IowaIowa CityUSA
  5. 5.LPCE/CNRS and Université d’ OrléansFrance

Personalised recommendations