Control of Ship-Mounted Cranes
We developed an integrated systems solution, which enables the transfer of cargo from one pitching, rolling, yawing, surging, heaving, and swaying ship to another pitching, rolling, yawing, surging, heaving, and swaying ship adjacent to it without damage to the ships or the material, personnel, or equipment. The total solution has been demonstrated through computer simulations, which account for the interaction of the two ships and the waves. Also, the total solution has been demonstrated in the Computer Automated Virtual Environment (CAVE) at Virginia Tech. As a part of the total systems solution, we also developed a process to ensure safe and expeditious ship approach, connection of the ships, minimization of the absolute as well as relative motions of the two ships, dynamic handling of the moored-ship assembly, and separation of the ships in an open ocean environment and in sea conditions up to sea state five, as defined by the Pierson-Moscowitz scale.
The simulation is based on a dynamic model of the ships and their interactions with each other, waves, winch/mooring system, inflatable fenders, cranes, and hoisted cargo. The model was used to produce a design that minimizes the absolute and relative motions of moored ships and prevents damaging metal-on-metal contact between them. Then, the motions were used to tune the crane control system, which was in turn used to provide the specifications of the cranes needed to safely and reliably transfer materials between the two ships. The crane control system consists of a pendulation control component, a motion prediction component, and a soft-landing component. The latter will protect against impact between the hoisted cargo and both of the ship decks throughout the pick-up, maneuvering, and deposit steps (the transfer maneuver).
Key wordstime-delay control sea basing pendulation control container cranes ship-mounted cranes
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