Does Pesticide Risk Assessment in the European Union Assess Long-Term Effects?

  • Michael C. Newman
  • Mark Crane
  • Graham Holloway
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 187)


Current methods would allow reasonable predictions of long-term effects of pesticide application if three changes were instituted. First, more population-based laboratory studies should be applied in predictive pesticide risk assessment. Second, ERA should include as much effort on collating and integrating ecological knowledge into the assessment in Tier 1 as is currently expended on gathering chemical and toxicological information on exposure and effects. Production of a formal conceptual ecological risk assessment model for each product or active substance for which authorization is sought would provide an appropriate framework for integrating and applying such knowledge. Third, in acknowledgment of the uncertainties in the predictive risk assessment process, more postauthorization monitoring should be done.

The application of Occam’s razor to pesticide risk assessment makes good sense, as it does in any other field of science. However, we must take care that simplicity in risk assessment process does not lead to oversimplification:

Essentially all science is the study of either very small bits of reality or simplified surrogates for complex whole systems. How we simplify can be critical. Careless simplification leads to misleading simplistic conclusions.(Slobodkin 1994)


Pesticide Application Headwater Stream Ecological Risk Assessment Pesticide Exposure Environ Toxicol 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. ADAS (2000) The Efficacy of No-Spray Buffer Zones in Protecting Field Boundary Watercourses from Pesticide Spray Drift. Report on Project PS0417 to the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, London, UK.Google Scholar
  2. Aldenberg T, Slob W (1993) Confidence limits for hazardous concentrations based on logistically distributed NOEC toxicity data. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 25:48–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alexander GJ, Horne D, Hanrahan SA (2002) An evaluation of the effects of deltmethrin on two non-target lizard species in the Karoo, South Africa. J Arid Environ 50:121–133.Google Scholar
  4. American Crop Protection Association and Canadian Crop Protection Institute (2001) Joint comments of the American Crop Protection Association (ACPA) and the Canadian Crop Protection Institute (CPI) regarding the NAFTA proposal for the assessment of chemicals on non-target plants (NTP), p. 68.Google Scholar
  5. Aquatic Dialogue Group (1994) Aquatic Dialogue Group: Pesticide Risk Assessment and Mitigation. SETAC Press, Pensacola, FL.Google Scholar
  6. Ashby-Crane RE, Clarke S, Mainstone CP (1994) Impact of Pesticides on River Ecology. R&D Note 269, National Rivers Authority, Bristol, UK.Google Scholar
  7. ASTM (1993) Standard guide for conducting the frog embryo teratogenesis assay: Xenopus (FETAX). In: Annual Book of ASTM Standards. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  8. Atchison GJ, Sandheinrich MB, Bryan MD (1996) Effects of environmental stressors on interspecific interactions of aquatic animals. In: Newman MC, Jagoe CH (eds) Ecotoxicology. A Hierarchical Treatment. CRC/Lewis Press, Boca Raton, pp 319–345.Google Scholar
  9. Bacietto JJ (1998) A framework for ecological risk assessment: beyond the quotient method. In: Newman MC, Strojan CL (eds) Risk Assessment: Logic and Measurement. CRC/Lewis Press, Boca Raton, pp 11–22.Google Scholar
  10. Ball SJ, Lindenmayer DB, Possingham HP (2003) The predictive accuracy of population viability analysis: a test using data from two small mammal species in a fragmented landscape. Biodivers Conserv 12:2393–2413.Google Scholar
  11. Bantle JA (1995) FETAX: a developmental toxicity assay using frog embryos. In: Rand GM (ed) Fundamentals of Aquatic Toxicology: Effects, Environmental Fate, and Risk Assessment, 2nd Ed. Taylor & Francis, Washington, DC, pp 207–230.Google Scholar
  12. Barnett EA, Fletcher MR, Hunter K, Sharp EA (2002) Draft. Pesticide poisoning of animals 2001: Investigations of suspected incidents in the United Kingdom. A report of the Environmental Panel of the Advisory Committee on Pesticides, pp 43.Google Scholar
  13. Baughman DS, Moore DW, Scott GI (1989) A comparison and evaluation of field and laboratory toxicity tests with fenvalerate on an estuarine crustacean. Environ Toxicol Chem 8:417–429.Google Scholar
  14. Beaumont P (1997) Where have all the birds gone? Pestic News 30:3.Google Scholar
  15. Begon M, Harper JL, Townsend CR (1986) Ecology: Individuals, Populations and Communities. Blackwell, London.Google Scholar
  16. Bellamy PE, Rothery P, Hinsley SA (2003) Synchrony of woodland bird populations: the effect of landscape structure. Ecography 26:338–348.Google Scholar
  17. Benton TG, Bryant DM, Cole L, Crick HQP (2002) Linking agricultural practice to insect and bird populations: a historical study over three decades. J Appl Ecol 39:673–687.Google Scholar
  18. Beyers DW, Farmer MS, Sikoski PJ (1995) Effects of rangeland aerial application of Sevin-4-Oil® on fish and aquatic invertebrate drift in the little Missouri River, North Dakota. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 28:27–34.Google Scholar
  19. Bhatti MA, Al-Khatib K, Felsot AS, Parker R, Kadir S (1995) Effects of simulated chlorsulfuran drift on fruit yield and quality of sweet cherries (Prunuus avium L.). Environ Toxicol Chem 14:537–544.Google Scholar
  20. Bishop CA, Ng P, Mineau P, Quinn JS, Struger J (2000) Effects of pesticide spraying on chick growth, behaviour, and parental care in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in an apple orchard in Ontario, Canada. Environ Toxicol Chem 19:2286–2297.Google Scholar
  21. Blaustein AR, Wake DB (1990) Declining amphibian populations: a global phenomenon. Trends Ecol Evol 5:203–204.Google Scholar
  22. Blaustein AR, Wake DB (1995) The puzzle of declining amphibian populations. Sci Am 272:52–57.Google Scholar
  23. Bliss CI, Cattell M (1943) Biological assay. Annu Rev Physiol 5:479–539.Google Scholar
  24. Blockwell SJ, Taylor EJ, Jones I, Pascoe D (1998) The influence of fresh water pollutants and interaction with Asellus aquaticus (L.) on the feeding activity of Gammarus pulex (L.). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 34:41–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Blus LJ, Henny CJ (1997) Field studies of pesticides and birds: unexpected and unique relations. Ecol Appl 7:1125–1132.Google Scholar
  26. Borg C, Toft S (2000) Importance of insect prey quality for grey partridge chicks Perdix perdix: a self-selection experiment. J Appl Ecol 37:557–563.Google Scholar
  27. Boutin C, Rogers CA (2000) Pattern of sensitivity of plant species to various herbicides: an analysis with two variables. Ecotoxicology 9:255–271.Google Scholar
  28. Boutin C, Freemark KE, Keddy CJ (1993) Proposed guidelines for registration of chemical pesticides: nontarget plant testing and evaluation. Tech Rep Series No. 145. Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  29. Boutin C, Freemark KE, Keddy CJ (1995) Overview and rationale for developing regulatory guidelines for nontarget plant testing with chemical pesticides. Environ Toxicol Chem 14:1465–1475.Google Scholar
  30. Broomhall S (2002) The effects of endosulfan and variable water temperature on survivorship and subsequent vulnerability to predation in Litoria citropa tadpoles. Aquat Toxicol 61:243–250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Brown Sullivan K, Spence KM (2003) Effects of sublethal concentrations of atrazine and nitrate on metamorphosis of the African clawed frog. Environ Toxicol Chem 22:627–635.Google Scholar
  32. Broyer J (1994) The decline of the corncrake in France and the management of meadow habitats. Alauda 62:1–7.Google Scholar
  33. Burton TM, Likens GE (1975) Energy flow and nutrient cycling in salamander populations in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. Ecology 56:1068–1080.Google Scholar
  34. Cairns J Jr (1984) Are single species toxicity tests alone adequate for estimating environmental hazard? Environ Monit Assess 4:259–273.Google Scholar
  35. Cairns J Jr (1992) Paradigms flossed: the coming of age of environmental toxicology. Environ Toxicol Chem 11:285–287.Google Scholar
  36. Cairns J Jr, Niederlehner BR (1993) Ecological function and resiliency: neglected criteria for environmental impact assessment and ecological risk analysis. Environ Prof 15:116–124.Google Scholar
  37. Cairns J Jr, Pratt JR, Niederlehner BR, McCormick PV (1986) A simple cost-effective multispecies toxicity test using organisms with a cosmopolitan distribution. Environ Monit Assess 6:207–220.Google Scholar
  38. Campbell KR, Bartell SM, Shaw JL (2000) Characterizing aquatic ecological risks from pesticides using a diquat dibromide case study. II. Approaches using quotients and distributions. Environ Toxicol Chem 19:760–774.Google Scholar
  39. Candolfi MP, Bakker F, Cañez V, Miles M, Neumann C, Pilling E, Primiani M, Roman K, Schmuck R, Storck-Weyhermüller S, Ufer A, Walttersdorfer A (1999) Sensitivity of non-target arthropods to plant protection products: could Typhlodromus pyri and Aphidius spp. be used as indicator species? Chemosphere 39:1357–1370.Google Scholar
  40. Candolfi MP, Bigler F, Campbell P, Heimbach U, Schmuck R, Angeli G, Bakker F, Brown K, Carli G, Dinter A, Forti D, Forster R, Gothmann A, Hassan S, Mead-Briggs M, Melandri M, Neumann P, Pasqualini E, Powell W, Reboulet J-N, Romijn K, Sechser B, Thieme T, Ufer A, Vergnet C, Vogt H (2000) Principles for regulatory testing and interpretation of semi-field and field studies with nontarget arthropods. J Pestic Sci 73:141–147.Google Scholar
  41. Candolfi MP, Barrett KL, Campbell PJ, Forster R, Grady N, Huet M-C, Lewis G, Oomen PA, Schmuck R, Vogt H (2001) Guidance Document on Regulatory Testing and Risk Assessment Procedures for Plant Protection Products to Nontarget Arthropods. SETAC, Pensacola, FL.Google Scholar
  42. Cardwell C, Hassall M, White P (1994) Effects of headland management on carabid beetle communities in Breckland cereal fields. Pedobiologia 38:50–62.Google Scholar
  43. Carr JA, Solomon KR (2003) Is atrazine causing frog deformities at very low doses? SETAC Globe 4(1):30–32.Google Scholar
  44. Carr JA, Du Preez LH, Giesy JP, Gross TS, Kendall RJ, Smith EE, Solomon KR, van der Kraak G (2002) Critique of Kiesecker JM. 2002. Synergism between trematode infection and pesticide exposure: a link to amphibian limb deformities in nature? In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America. Prepared by the Atrazine Endocrine Ecological Risk Assessment Panel, ECORISK, Inc., Ferndale, WA.Google Scholar
  45. Carr JA, Gentles A, Smith EE, Goleman WL, Urquidi LJ, Thuett K, Kendall RJ, Giesy JP, Gross TS, Solomon KR, van der Kraak G (2003) Response of larval Xenopus laevis to atrazine: assessment of growth, metamorphosis, and gonadal and laryngeal morphology. Environ Toxicol Chem 22:396–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Caslin TM, Wolfe JO (1999) Individual and demographic responses of the gray-tailed vole to vinclozolin. Environ Toxicol Chem 18:1529–1533.Google Scholar
  47. Castillo LE, de La Cruz E, Ruepert C (1997) Ecotoxicology and pesticides in tropical aquatic ecosystems of Central America. Environ Toxicol Chem 16:41–51.Google Scholar
  48. Caswell H (1996) Demography meets ecotoxicology: untangling the population level effects of toxic substances. In: Newman MC, Jagoe CH (eds) Ecotoxicology. A Hierarchical Treatment. CRC/Lewis, Boca Raton, pp 255–292.Google Scholar
  49. Caswell H (2001) Matrix Population Models, 2nd Ed. Sinauer, Sunderland.Google Scholar
  50. Catling PM, Porebski S (1998) Rare wild plants of potential or current economic importance in Canada: a list of priorities. Can J Plant Sci 78:653–658.Google Scholar
  51. Chamberlain DE, Wilson AM, Browne SJ, Vickery JA (1999) Effects of habitat type and management on the abundance of skylarks in the breeding season. J Appl Ecol 36:856–870.Google Scholar
  52. Chamberlain DE, Vickery JA, Gough S (2000) Spatial and temporal distribution of breeding skylarks Alauda arvensis in relation to crop type in periods of population increase and decrease. Ardea 88:61–73.Google Scholar
  53. Chinery M (1993) Insects of Britain and Northern Europe, 3rd Ed. Harper Collins, London.Google Scholar
  54. Chiverton PA (1999) The benefits of unsprayed cereal crop margins to grey partridges Perdix perdix and pheasants Phasianus colchicus in Sweden. Wildl Biol 5:83–92.Google Scholar
  55. Clarke KR (1999) Nonmetric multivariate analysis in community-level ecotoxicology. Environ Toxicol Chem 18:118–127.Google Scholar
  56. Clarke KR, Ainsworth M (1993) A method of linking multivariate community structure to environmental variables. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 92:205–219.Google Scholar
  57. Clements WH, Newman MC (2002) Community Ecotoxicology. Wiley, Chichester.Google Scholar
  58. Clements DK, Skidmore P (1998) The autecology of the hornet robberfly Asilus crabroniformis L. in Wales, 1997. Countryside Council for Wales Contract Science Rep No. 263.Google Scholar
  59. Clements DK, Skidmore P (2002) The autecology of the hornet robberfly Asilus crabroniformis L. in Wales, 1997–99. Countryside Council for Wales Contract Science Rep No. 525.Google Scholar
  60. Crain DA, Guillette LJ Jr (1998) Reptiles as models of contaminant-induced endocrine disruption. Anim Reprod Sci 53:77–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Crain DA, Guillette LJ Jr, Pickford DB, Percival HF, Woodward AR (1998) Sexsteroid and thyroid hormone concentrations in juvenile alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from contaminated and reference lakes in Florida, USA. Environ Toxicol Chem 17:446–452.Google Scholar
  62. Cramp S (1988) Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa:The Birds of the Western Palearctic, vol V. Tyrant Flycatchers to Thrushes. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  63. Cramp S (1992) Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palearctic, vol VI. Warblers. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  64. Cramp S, Perrins CM (1993) Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palearctic, vol VII. Flycatchers to Shrikes. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  65. Cramp S, Perrins CM (1994a) Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa:The Birds of the Western Palearctic, vol VIII. Crows to Finches. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  66. Cramp S, Perrins CM (1994b) Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa:The Birds of the Western Palearctic, vol IX. Bunting and New World Warblers. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  67. Crane M (1997) Research needs for predictive multispecies tests in aquatic toxicology. Hydrobiologia 346:149–155.Google Scholar
  68. Crommentuijn T, Sijm D, de Bruijn J, van Leeuwen K, van de Plassche E (2000) Maximum permissible and negligible concentrations for some organic substances and pesticides. J Environ Manag 58:297–312.Google Scholar
  69. Crossland NO, Shires SW, Bennett D (1982) Aquatic toxicology of cypermethrin. III. Fate and biological effects of spray drift deposits in fresh water adjacent to agricultural land. Aquat Toxicol 2:253–270.Google Scholar
  70. Cuppen JGM, Van den Brink PJ, Camps E, Uil KF, Brock TCM (2000) Impact of fungicide carbendazin in freshwater microcosms. I. Water quality, breakdown of particulate organic matter and responses of macroinvertebrates. Aquat Toxicol 48:233–250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Dabrowski JM, Schulz R (2003) Predicted and measured levels of azinphos-methyl in the Lourens River, South Africa: comparison of runoff and spray drift. Environ Toxicol Chem 22:494–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Dahl B, Blanck H (1996) Pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) in periphyton communities established under tri-n-butyltin (TBT) stress in marine microcosms. Aquat Toxicol 34:305–325.Google Scholar
  73. Daniels RE, Allan JD (1981) Life table evaluation of chronic exposure to a pesticide. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 38:485–494.Google Scholar
  74. Davies PE, Cook LSJ (1993) Catastrophic macroinvertebrate drift and sublethal effects on brown trout, Salmo trutta, caused by cypermethrin spraying on a Tasmanian stream. Aquat Toxicol 27:201–224.Google Scholar
  75. Day K, Kaushik NK (1987) An assessment of the chronic toxicity of the synthetic pyrethroid, fenvalerate, to Daphnia galeata mendota, using life tables. Environ Toxicol Chem 44:13–26.Google Scholar
  76. Deisch MS, Uresk DW, Linder RL (1990) Effects of rodenticides on deer mice in Western South Dakota. Great Basin Nat 50:347–353.Google Scholar
  77. de Boer IJM (2003) Environmental impact assessment of conventional and organic milk production. Livestock Prod Sci 80:69–77.Google Scholar
  78. de Snoo GR, Scheidegger NMI, de Jong FMW (1999) Vertebrate wildlife incidents with pesticides: a European survey. Pestic Sci 55:47–54.Google Scholar
  79. Dodson SI, Merritt CM, Shannahan J-P, Shults CM (1999) Low exposure concentrations of atrazine increase male production in Daphnia pulicaria. Environ Toxicol Chem 18:1568–1573.Google Scholar
  80. Doebeli M, Killingback T (2003) Metapopulation dynamics with quasi-local competition. Theor Pop Biol 64:397–416.Google Scholar
  81. Dover J, Sotherton N, Gobbett K (1990) Reduced pesticide inputs on cereal field margins: the effects on butterfly abundance. Ecol Entomol 15:17–24.Google Scholar
  82. ECOFRAM (1999) Draft Guidance, Ecological Committee on FIFRA Risk Assessment Methods (ECOFRAM) Aquatic Report, Scholar
  83. Edge WD, Schauber EM (2000) Factors affecting risk assessment of small mammals to pesticides. Environ Toxicol Chem 19:2735–2741.Google Scholar
  84. Eidt DC (1975) The effect of fenitrothion from large-scale forest spraying on benthos in New Brunswick headwaters streams. Can Entomol 107:743–760.Google Scholar
  85. Epperson BK (2000) Spatial genetic structure and non-equilibrium demographics within plant populations. Plant Species Biol 15:269–279.Google Scholar
  86. Ernst SKM, Brown JH (2001) Delayed compensation for missing keystone species by colonization. Science 292:101–102.Google Scholar
  87. Ernst W, Doe K, Jonah P, Young J, Julien G, Hennigar P (1991) The toxicity of chlorothalonil to aquatic fauna and the impact of its operational use on a pond ecosystem. Arch Environ Contamin Toxicol 21:1–9.Google Scholar
  88. European Commission (Health & Consumer Protection Directorate — General). (2002a) Guidance Document on Terrestrial Ecotoxicology Under Council Directive 91/414/EEC. Draft Working Document, 17 October 2002. SANCO/10329/2002 rev 2 final.Google Scholar
  89. European Commission (Health & Consumer Protection Directorate — General). (2002b) Guidance Document on Aquatic Ecotoxicology Working Document, 17 October 2002. SANCO/3268/2001, rev. 4 final.Google Scholar
  90. Ewald JA, Aebischer NJ (1999) Pesticide use, avian food resources and bird densities in Sussex. Report No. 296. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, UK.Google Scholar
  91. Fagan WF, Meir E, Prendergast J, Folarin A, Karieva P (2001) Characterizing population vulnerability for 758 species. Ecol Lett 4:132–138.Google Scholar
  92. Farr JA (1978) The effect of methyl parathion on predator choice of two estuarine prey species. Trans Am Fish Soc 107:87–91.Google Scholar
  93. Fauth JE (1999) Identifying potential keystone species from field data: an example from temporary ponds. Ecol Lett 2:36–43.Google Scholar
  94. Ferson S, AkçHakaya HR (1990) Modeling Structure in Age-structured Populations. RAMAS/Age User Manual. Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, NY.Google Scholar
  95. Finney DJ (1947) Probit Analysis. A Statistical Treatment of the Sigmoidal Response Curve. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  96. Fletcher JS, Johnson FL, McFarlane JC (1990) Influence of greenhouse versus field testing and taxonomic differences on plant sensitivity to chemical treatment. Environ Toxicol Chem 9:769–776.Google Scholar
  97. Fletcher JS, Pfleeger TG, Ratsch HC (1993) Potential environmental risks associated with new sulfonylurea herbicides. Environ Sci Technol 27:2250–2252.Google Scholar
  98. Fletcher JS, Pfleeger TG, Ratsch HC (1995) Chlorsulfuron influence on garden pea reproduction. Physiol Plant 94:261–267.Google Scholar
  99. Fletcher JS, Pfleeger TG, Ratsch HC, Hayes R (1996) Potential impact of low levels of chlorsulfuron and other herbicides on growth and yield of nontarget plants. Environ Toxicol Chem 15:1189–1196.Google Scholar
  100. Forbes VE, Calow P (1999) Is the per capita rate of increase a good measure of population-level effects in ecotoxicology? Environ Toxicol Chem 18:1544–1556.Google Scholar
  101. Forbes VE, Calow P (2003) Contaminant effects on population demographics. In: Newman MC, Unger MA (eds) Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology, 2nd Ed. CRC/Lewis, Boca Raton, pp 221–224.Google Scholar
  102. Fossi MC, Sanchez-Hernandez JC, Diaz-Diaz R, Lari L, Garcia-Hernandez JE, Gaggi C (1995) The lizard Gallotia galloti as a bioindicator of organophosphorus contamination in the Canary Islands. Environ Pollut 87:289–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Frankham R, Ballou JD, Briscoe DA (2002) Introduction to Conservation Genetics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  104. Freemark KE, Boutin C (1994) Impacts of agricultural herbicide use on terrestrial wildlife: a review with special reference to Canada. Tech Rep No. 196. Canadian Wildlife Service, Headquarters, p. 53.Google Scholar
  105. Freemark K, Boutin C (1995) Impacts of agricultural herbicide use on terrestrial wildlife in temperate landscapes: a review with special reference to North America. Agric Ecosyst Environ 52:67–91.Google Scholar
  106. Fry DM, Toone CK (1981) DDT-induced feminization of gull embryos. Science 213:922–924.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Fulton MH, Key PB (2001) Acetylcholinesterase inhibition in estuarine fish and invertebrates as an indicator of organophosphorus insecticide exposure and effects. Environ Toxicol Chem 20:37–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Furse MT, Symes KL, Winder JM, Clarke RT, Blackburn JH, Gunn RJM, Grieve NJ, Hurley M (1995) The Faunal Richness of Headwater Streams: Stage 3. Impact of Agricultural Activity. Volume 1. Main Report. Project 242. National Rivers Authority R&D, Bristol, UK.Google Scholar
  109. Gardner GR, Yevich PP, Hurst J, Thayer P, Benyi S, Harshbarger JC, Pruell RJ (1991) Germinomas and teratoid siphon anomalies in softshell clams, Mya arenaria, environmentally exposed to herbicides. Environ Health Perspect 90:43–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Gardner SC, Grue CE (1996) Effects of Rodeo® and Garlon® 3A on nontarget wetland species in central Washington. Environ Toxicol Chem 15:441–451.Google Scholar
  111. Gibbons JW, Scott DE, Ryan TJ, Buhlmann KA, Tuberville TD, Metts BS, Greene JL, Mills T, Leiden Y, Poppy S, Winne CT (2000) The global decline of reptiles, déjá vu amphibians. Bioscience 50:653–666.Google Scholar
  112. Gilbertson M (1997) Advances in forensic toxicology for establishing causality between Great Lakes epizootics and specific persistent toxic chemicals. Environ Toxicol Chem 16:1771–1778.Google Scholar
  113. Giler, PS, O’Donovan G (2002) Biodiversity and ecosystem function: do species matter? Biol Environ 102B:129–139.Google Scholar
  114. Gilpin ME, Ayala FJ (1973) Global models of growth and competition. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 70:3590–3593.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Gilpin ME, Justice KE (1972) Reinterpretation of the invalidation of the Principle of Competitive Exclusion. Nature (Lond) 236:273–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Grant A (1998) Population consequences of chronic toxicity: incorporating density dependence into the analysis of life table response experiments. Ecol Model 105:325–335.Google Scholar
  117. Gray LE Jr, Ostby J, Wolf C, Lambright C, Kelce W (1998) The value of mechanistic studies in laboratory animals for the prediction of reproductive effects in wildlife: endocrine effects on mammalian sexual differentiation. Environ Toxicol Chem 17:109–118.Google Scholar
  118. Green RE (1984) The feeding ecology and survival of partridge chicks Alectoris rufa and Perdix perdix on arable farmland in East Anglia. J Appl Ecol 21: 817–830.Google Scholar
  119. Green RE (1996) Factors affecting the population density of the corncrake Crex crex in Britain and Ireland. J Appl Ecol 33:237–248.Google Scholar
  120. Green RE, Gibbons DW (2000) The status of the corncrake Crex crex in Britain in 1998. Bird Study 47:129–137.Google Scholar
  121. Green RE, Stowe TJ (1993) The decline of the corncrake Crex crex in Britain and Ireland in relation to habitat change. J Appl Ecol 30:689–695.Google Scholar
  122. Greig-Smith PW, Thompson HM, Hardy AR, Bew MH, Findlay E, Stevenson JH (1994) Incidents of poisoning of honeybees (Apis mellitera) by agricultural pesticides in Great Britain (1981–1991). Crop Protection 13:567–581.Google Scholar
  123. Grist EPM, Leung KMY, Wheeler JR, Crane M (2002) Better bootstrap estimation of hazardous concentration thresholds for aquatic assemblages. Environ Toxicol Chem 21:1515–1524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Gruar D, Peach W, Taylor R (2003) Summer diet and body condition of song thrushes Turdus philomelos in stable and declining farmland bird populations. Ibis 145:637–649.Google Scholar
  125. Guillette LJ Jr, Pickford DB, Crain DA, Rooney AA, Percival HF (1996) Reduction in penis size and plasma testosterone concentrations in juvenile alligators living in a contaminated environment. Gen Comp Endocrinol 101:32–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Guillette LJ Jr, Brock JW, Rooney AA, Woodward AR (1999) Serum concentrations of various environmental contaminants and their relationship to sex steroid concentrations and phallus size in juvenile American alligators. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 36:447–455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Hall RJ (1980) Effects of Environmental Contaminants on Reptiles: A Review. Special Scientific Report — Wildlife 228. U.S. Fish and Wildlife, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  128. Hall RJ, Henry PFP (1992) Assessing effects of pesticides on amphibians and reptiles: status and needs. Herpetol J 2:65–71.Google Scholar
  129. Halliday T (1998) A declining amphibian conundrum. Nature (Lond) 394:418–419.Google Scholar
  130. Hanski I (1999) Metapopulation Ecology. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  131. Harrington LA, MacDonald DW (2002) A Review of the Effects of Pesticides on Wild Terrestrial Mammals in Britain. Wildlife Conservation Research Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  132. Harris ML, Bishop CA, Struger J, Ripley B, Bogart J (1998a) The functional integrity of northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) and green frog (Rana clamitans) populations in orchard wetlands. II. Effects of pesticides and eutrophic conditions on early life stage development. Environ Toxicol Chem 17:1351–1363.Google Scholar
  133. Harris ML, Bishop CA, Struger J, van den Heuvel MR, van der Kraak GJ, Dixon DG, Ripley B, Bogart JP (1998b) The functional integrity of northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) and green frog (Rana clamitans) populations in orchard wetlands. I. Genetics, physiology, and biochemistry of breeding adults and young-of the-year. Environ Toxicol Chem 17:1338–1350.Google Scholar
  134. Hart A (2003) Draft briefing paper. Scope and scale for improved assessments of long term risks to birds and mammals for regulatory purposes in the UK.Google Scholar
  135. Hatakeyama S, Yokoyama N (1997) Correlation between overall pesticide effects monitored by shrimp mortality test and change in macrobenthic fauna in a river. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 36:148–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Hatakeyama S, Shiraishi H, Kobayashi N (1990) Effects of aerial spraying on insecticides on nontarget macrobenthos in a mountain stream. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 19:254–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Hayes T (2003) Effects of atrazine on sex differentiation of Xenopus laevis. SETAC Globe 4(1):30.Google Scholar
  138. Hayes TB, Collins A, Lee M, Mendoza M, Noriega N, Stuart AA, Vonk A (2002a) Hermaphroditic, demasculinised frogs after exposure to the herbicide atrazine at low ecologically relevant doses. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:5476–5480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Hayes TB, Haston K, Tsui M, Hoang A, Haeffele C, Vonk A (2002b) Feminization of male frogs in the wild. Nature (Lond) 419:895–896.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Heckman CW (1981) Long-term effects of intensive pesticide applications on the aquatic community in orchard drainage ditches near Hamburg, Germany. Arch Environ Contamin Toxicol 10:393–426.Google Scholar
  141. Henderson IG, Cooper J, Fuller RJ, Vickery J (2000) The relative abundance of birds on set-aside and neighbouring field in summer. J Appl Ecol 37:335–347.Google Scholar
  142. Hendley P, Holmes C, Kay S, Maund SJ, Travis KZ, Zhang M (2001) Probabilistic risk assessment of cotton pyrethroids: III. A spatial analysis of the Mississippi, USA, cotton landscape. Environ Toxicol Chem 20:669–678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Henny CL, Blus LJ, Kolbe EH, Fitzner RE (1985) Organophosphate insecticide (Famphur) topically applied to cattle kills magpies and hawks. J Wildl Manag 49:648–658.Google Scholar
  144. Hickey JJ, Anderson DW (1968) Chlorinated hydrocarbons and eggshell changes in raptorial and fish-eating birds. Science 162:271–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Hill AB (1965) The environment and disease: association or causation? Proc R Soc Med 58:295–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Hill JK, Thomas CD, Lewis OT (1996) Effects of habitat patch size and isolation on dispersal by Hesperia comma butterflies: implications for metapopulation structure. J Anim Ecol 65:725–735.Google Scholar
  147. Hill JK, Thomas CD, Lewis OT (1999) Flight morphology in fragmented populations of a rare British butterfly, Hesperia comma. Biol Conserv 87:277–283.Google Scholar
  148. Hoelzel AR (1999) Impact of population bottlenecks on genetic variation and the importance of life-history: a case study of the northern elephant seal. Biol J Linn Soc 68:23–39.Google Scholar
  149. Hoelzel AR, Halley J, O’Brien SJ, Campagna C, Arnborn T, le Boeuf B, Ralls K, Dover GA (1993) Elephant seal genetic variation and use of simulation models to investigate historical population bottlenecks. J Hered 84:443–449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Holloway GJ, Dickson JD, Harris PW, Smith J (2003a) Dynamics and foraging behaviour of adult hornet robberflies, Asilus crabroniformis: implications for conservation management. J Insect Conserv 7:127–135.Google Scholar
  151. Holloway GJ, Griffiths GH, Richardson P (2003b) Conservation strategy maps: a tool to facilitate biodiversity action planning illustrated using the heath fritillary butterfly. J Appl Ecol 40:413–421.Google Scholar
  152. Hopkins SP (1993) Ecological implications of “95% protection levels” for metals in soil. Oikos 66:137–141.Google Scholar
  153. Hopkins WA (2000) Reptile toxicology: challenges and opportunities on the last frontier in vertebrate ecotoxicology. Environ Toxicol Chem 19:2391–2393.Google Scholar
  154. Horne G, Fielding AH (2002) Recovery of the Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus in Cumbria, UK, 1966–99. Bird Study 49:229–236.Google Scholar
  155. Hossel JE (2001) Climate change and UK farmland birds: a review of implications. RSPB report no. 5060. p. 76.Google Scholar
  156. Hulme M, Viner D (1998) A climate change scenario. Clim Change 39:145–176.Google Scholar
  157. Hunt GL Jr, Hunt MW (1977) Female-female pairing in Western gulls (Larus occidentalis) in Southern California. Science 196:1466–1467.Google Scholar
  158. Hurd MK, Perry SA, Perry WB (1996) Nontarget effects of a test application of diflubenzuron to the forest canopy on stream macroinvertebrates. Environ Toxicol Chem 15:1344–1351.Google Scholar
  159. Jacquemyn H, van Rossum F, Brys R, Endels P, Hermy M, Triest L, de Blust G (2003) Effects of agricultural land use and fragmentation on genetics, demography and population persistence of the rare Primula vulgaris, and its implications for conservation. Belg J Bot 136:5–22.Google Scholar
  160. Jagoe R, Newman MC (1997) Bootstrap estimation of community NOEC values. Ecotoxicology 6: 293–306.Google Scholar
  161. Joern A, Hoagland KD (1996) In defense of whole-community bioassays for risk assessment. Environ Toxicol Chem 15:407–409.Google Scholar
  162. Kadiri N, Lumaret J-P, Janati-Idrissi A (1999) Macrocyclic lactones: impact on nontarget fauna in pastures. Ann Soc Entomol France 35:222–229.Google Scholar
  163. Kammenga JE, Busschers M, Van Straalen NM, Jepson PC, Baker J (1996) Stress induced fitness is not determined by the most sensitive life-cycle trait. Funct Ecol 10:106–111.Google Scholar
  164. Kapustka LA, Williams BA, Fairbrother A (1996) Evaluating risk predictions at population and community levels in pesticide registration: hypothesis to be tested. Environ Toxicol Chem 15:427–431.Google Scholar
  165. Karr JR (1991) Biological integrity: a long-neglected aspect of water resource management. Ecol Appl 1:66–84.Google Scholar
  166. Karr JR (1993) Defining and assessing ecological integrity: beyond water quality. Environ Toxicol Chem 12:1521–1531.Google Scholar
  167. Karr JR, Fausch KD, Angermeier PL, Yant PR, Schlosser IJ (1986) Assessing Biological Integrity in Running Waters. A Method and Its Rationale. Illinois Natural History Survey Publication 5. Illinois Natural History Survey, Champagne, IL.Google Scholar
  168. Kaye TN, Pyke DA (2003) The effect of stochastic technique on estimates of population viability from transition matrix models. Ecology 84:1464–1476.Google Scholar
  169. Kersting K, Van den Brink PJ (1997) Effects of the insecticide Dursban® 4E (active ingredient chlorpyrifos) in outdoor experimental ditches: responses of ecosystem metabolism. Environ Toxicol Chem 16:251–259.Google Scholar
  170. Kersting K, Van Wijngaarden RPA (1999) Effects of a pulsed treatment with the herbicide Afalon (active ingredient linuron) on macrophyte-dominated mesocosms. I. Responses of ecosystem metabolism. Environ Toxicol Chem 18:2859–2865.Google Scholar
  171. Kiesecker JM (2002) Synergism between trematode infection and pesticide exposure: a link to amphibian limb deformities in nature? Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99(15):9900–9904.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Kirby-Smith WW, Eisenreich SJ, Howe JT, Luettich RA Jr (1992) The Effects in Estuaries of Pesticide Runoff from Adjacent Farmlands. CR813415. Final Project Report. US Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL.Google Scholar
  173. Krebs JR, Wilson JD, Bradbury RB, Siriwardena GM (1999) The second Silent Spring? Nature (Lond) 400:611–612.Google Scholar
  174. Kreutzweiser DP, Kingsbury PD, Feng JC (1989) Drift response of stream invertebrates to aerial applications of glyphosate. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 42:331–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Kruzynski GM, Birtwell IK (1994) A predation bioassay to quantify the ecological significance of sublethal responses of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to the antisapstain fungicide TCMTB. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 51:1780–1790.Google Scholar
  176. Kudoh H (2001) Gene flow among plant populations in an ecological landscape. Jpn J Ecol 51:193–201.Google Scholar
  177. Lacy RC (1993) VORTEX: a computer simulation model for Population Viability Analysis. Wildl Res 20:45–65.Google Scholar
  178. Lacy RC, Clarke TW (1990) Population viability assessment of the eastern barred bandicoot in Victoria. In: Clarke TW, Seebeck JH (eds) The Management and Conservation of Small Populations. Chicago Zoological Society, Chicago, pp 131–145.Google Scholar
  179. Lambert MRK (1993) Effects of DDT ground-spraying against tsetse flies on lizards in NW Zimbabwe. Environ Pollut 82:231–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Lambert MRK (1994) Ground-spray treatment with deltamethrin against tsetse flies in NW Zimbabwe has little short term effect on lizards. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 53:555–561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Lambert MRK (1997) Environmental effects of heavy spillage from a destroyed pesticide store near Hargeisa (Somaliland) assessed during the dry season, using reptiles and amphibians as bioindicators. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 32:80–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Landis WG, Matthews RA, Matthews GB (1996) The layered and historical nature of ecological systems and the risk assessment of pesticides. Environ Toxicol Chem 15:432–440.Google Scholar
  183. Lane SJ, Alonso JC (2001) Status and extinction probabilities of great bustard (Otis tarda) leks in Andalucia, southern Spain. Biodivers Conserv 10:893–910.Google Scholar
  184. Leonard AW, Hyne RV, Lim RP, Chapman JC (1999) Effect of endosulfan runoff from cotton fields on macroinvertebrates in the Namoi River. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 42:125–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Leonard AW, Hyne RV, Lim RP, Pablo F, van den Brink PJ (2000) Riverine endosulfan concentrations in the Namoi River, Australia: link to cotton field runoff and macroinvertebrate population densities. Environ Toxicol Chem 19:1540–1551.Google Scholar
  186. Lewis MA, Wang W (1999) Biomonitoring using aquatic vegetation. Environ Sci Forum 96:243–274.Google Scholar
  187. Liber K, Kaushik NK, Solomon KR, Carey JH (1992) Experimental designs for aquatic mesocosm studies: comparison of the “ANOVA” and “regression” design for assessing the impact of tetrachlorophenol in zooplankton populations in limnocorrals. Environ Toxicol Chem 11:61–77.Google Scholar
  188. Liebig J (1840) Chemistry in Its Application to Agriculture and Physiology. Taylor & Walton, London.Google Scholar
  189. Liess M (1994) Pesticide impact on macroinvertebrate communities of running waters in agricultural ecosystems. Verh Int Verein Limnol 25:2060–2062.Google Scholar
  190. Liess M (1998) Significance of agricultural pesticides on stream macroinvertebrate communities. Verh Int Verein Limnol 26:1245–1249.Google Scholar
  191. Liess M, Schulz R (1999) Linking insecticide contamination and population response in an agricultural stream. Environ Toxicol Chem 18:1948–1955.Google Scholar
  192. Liess M, Schulz R, Liess MH-D, Rother B, Kreuzig R (1999) Determination of insecticide contamination in agricultural headwater streams. Water Res 33:239–247.Google Scholar
  193. Luoto M, Rekolainen S, Aakkula J, Pykala J (2003) Loss of plant species richness and habitat connectivity in grasslands associated with agricultural change in Finland. Ambio 32:447–452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Mackay CE, Colton JA, Bigham G (2002) Structuring population-based ecological risk assessments in a dynamic landscape. In: Newman MC, Roberts Jr MH, Hale RC (eds) Coastal and Estuarine Risk Assessment. CRC/Lewis, Boca Raton, pp 273–296.Google Scholar
  195. Madsen T, Shine R, Olsson M, Wittzell H (1999) Restoration of an inbred adder population. Nature (Lond) 402:34–35.Google Scholar
  196. MAFF Pesticides Safety Directorate (1999) Assessing pesticide risks to non-target terrestrial plants: a desk study. Commission No. PN0923.Google Scholar
  197. Markus P, Timo P, Juha T (2003) Habitat preferences of the skylark Alauda arvensis in Southern Sweden. Ornis Fenn 80:97–110.Google Scholar
  198. Marshall J, Brown V, Boatman N, Lutman P, Squire G (2001) The impact of herbicides on weed abundance and biodiversity, PN0940. A Report for the UK Pesticides Safety Directorate. IACR-Long Ashton Research Station.Google Scholar
  199. Martin PA, Johnson DL, Forsyth DJ, Hill BD (2000) Effects of two grasshopper control insecticides on food resources and reproductive success of two species of grassland songbirds. Environ Toxicol Chem 19:2987–2996.Google Scholar
  200. Matthews RA, Landis WG, Matthews GB (1996) The community conditioning hypothesis and its application to environmental toxicology. Environ Toxicol Chem 15:597–603.Google Scholar
  201. Matthews RA, Matthews GB, Landis WG (1998) Application of community level toxicity testing to environmental risk assessment. In: Newman MC, Strojan CL (eds) Risk Assessment. Logic and Measurement, CRC/Lewis Press, Boca Raton, pp 225–253.Google Scholar
  202. Matthiessen P, Sheahan D, Harrison R, Kirby M, Rycroft R, Turnbull A, Volkner C, Williams R (1995) Use of a Gammarus pulex bioassay to measure the effects of transient carbofuran runoff from farmland. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 30:111–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Matz AC, Bennett RS, Landis WG (1998) Effects of azinphos-methyl on northern bobwhite: a comparison of laboratory and field results. Environ Toxicol Chem 17:1364–1370.Google Scholar
  204. Maund SJ, Travis KZ, Hendley P, Giddings JM, Solomon KR (2001) Probabilistic risk assessment of cotton pyrethroids: V. Combining landscape-level exposure and ecotoxicological effects data to characterize risks. Environ Toxicol Chem 20:687–692.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Maurer BA, Holt RD (1996) Effects of chronic pesticide stress on wildlife populations in complex landscapes: processes at multiple scales. Environ Toxicol Chem 15:420–426.Google Scholar
  206. May RM (1984) An overview: real and apparent patterns in community structure. In: Strong DR, Simberloff D, Abele LG, Thistle AB (eds) Ecological Communities: Conceptual Issues and the Evidence. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, pp 3–18.Google Scholar
  207. McCracken DI, Foster GN (1993) The effects of ivermectin on the invertebrate fauna associated with cow dung. Environ Toxicol Chem 12:73–84.Google Scholar
  208. McGinnity P, Prodohl P, Ferguson A, Hynes R, Maoileidigh NO, Baker N, Cotter D, O’Hea B, Cooke D, Rogan G, Taggart J, Cross T (2003) Fitness reduction and potential extinction of wild populations of Altlantic salmon, Salmo salar, as a result of interactions with escaped farm salmon. Proc R Soc Lond B 270:2443–2450.Google Scholar
  209. McLaughlin A, Mineau P (1995) The impact of agricultural practices on biodiversity. Agric Ecosyst Environ 55:201–212.Google Scholar
  210. Menge BA, Berlow EL, Blanchette CA, Navarrete SA, Yamada SB (1994) The keystone species concept: variation in interaction strength in a rocky intertidal habitat. Ecol Monogr 64:249–286.Google Scholar
  211. Mills LS, Soule ME, Doak DF (1993) The keystone-species concept in ecology and conservation. BioScience 43:219–223.Google Scholar
  212. Millsap BA, Kennedy PL, Mitchell A, Court G, Enderson JH, Rosenfield RN (1998) Review of the proposal to de-list the American peregrine falcon. Wildl Soc Bull 36:522–538.Google Scholar
  213. Milnes MR, Woodward AR, Rooney AA, Guillette LJ (2002) Plasma steroid concentrations in relation to size and age in juvenile alligators from two Florida lakes. Comp Biochem Physiol (Part A) 131:923–930.Google Scholar
  214. Mineau P (1994) An analysis of avian reproduction studies submitted for pesticide registration. Ecotox Env Safety 29:304–329.Google Scholar
  215. Mineau P (2002) Estimating the probability of bird mortality from pesticide sprays on the basis of the field study record. Environ Toxicol Chem 21:1497–1506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Morrison B, Wells D (1981) The fate of fenitrothion in a stream environment and its effect on the fauna, following aerial spraying of a Scottish forest. Sci Total Environ 19:233–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Muller P, Nagel P, Flacke W (1981) Ecological side effects of dieldrin against tsetse flies in Adamaoua, Cameroon. Oecologia (Berl) 50:187–194.Google Scholar
  218. Nacci DE, Gleason TR, Gutjahr-Gobell R, Huber M, Munns Jr WR (2002) Effects of chronic stress on wildlife populations: a population modeling approach and case study. In: Newman MC, Roberts Jr MH, Hale RC (eds) Coastal and Estuarine Risk Assessment. CRC/Lewis, Boca Raton, pp 247–272.Google Scholar
  219. Naeem S (1998) Species redundancy and ecosystem reliability. Conserv Biol 12:39–45.Google Scholar
  220. Nakamaru M, Iwasa Y, Nakanishi J (2002) Extinction risk to herring gull populations from DDT exposure. Environ Toxicol Chem 21:195–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Newman MC (1995) Quantitative Methods in Aquatic Ecotoxicology. CRC/Lewis, Boca Raton.Google Scholar
  222. Newman MC (2001) Population Ecotoxicology. Wiley, Chichester.Google Scholar
  223. Newman MC, McCloskey JT (2000) The individual tolerance concept is not the sole explanation for the probit dose-effect model. Environ Toxicol Chem 19:520–526.Google Scholar
  224. Newman MC, McCloskey JT (2002) Applying time to event methods to assess pollutant effects on populations. In: Crane M, Newman MC, Chapman PF, Fenlon J (eds) Risk Assessment with Time to Event Models. CRC/Lewis, Boca Raton, pp 23–38.Google Scholar
  225. Newman MC, Unger MA (2003) Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology, 2nd Ed. CRC/Lewis, Boca Raton.Google Scholar
  226. Newton I (1986) The Sparrowhawk. T & AD Poyser, Calton, Staffs, UK.Google Scholar
  227. Norris RF, Kogan M (2000) Interactions between weeds, arthropod pests, and their natural enemies in managed ecosystems. Weed Sci 48:94–158.Google Scholar
  228. O’Connor RJ (1996) Toward the incorporation of spatial temporal dynamics into ecotoxicology. In: Rhodes OE Jr, Chesser RK, Smith MH (eds) Population Dynamics in Ecological Space and Time. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  229. Osano O, Admiraal W, Otieno D (2002) Developmental disorders in embryos of the frog Xenopus laevis induced by chloroacetanilide herbicides and their degradation products. Environ Toxicol Chem 21:375–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Pastorok RA, Bartell SM, Ferson S, Ginzburg LR (2002) Ecological Modeling in Risk Assessment: Chemical Effects on Populations, Ecosystems and Landscapes. Lewis, Boca Raton.Google Scholar
  231. Pauli BD, Perrault JA, Money SL (2000) RATL: A Database of Reptile and Amphibian Toxicology Literature. Technical Report Series No. 357. Canadian Wildlife Service, Headquarters, Hull, Québec, Canada.Google Scholar
  232. Pemberton JM, Smith RH (1985) Lack of biochemical polymorphism in British UK fallow deer Dama dama. Heredity 55:199–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Petersen RC Jr, Petersen LB-M (1988) Compensatory mortality in aquatic populations: its importance for interpretation of toxicant effects. Ambio 17:381–386.Google Scholar
  234. Pfleeger T, McFarlane C, Sherman R, Volk G (1991) A short-term bioassay for whole plant toxicity. In: Gorsuch JW, Lower WR, Wang W, Lewis MA (eds) Plants for Toxicity Assessment, vol 2. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, pp 355–364.Google Scholar
  235. Philbrick CT, Les DH (1996) Evolution of aquatic angiosperm reproductive systems. Bioscience 46:813–826.Google Scholar
  236. Pimentel D (1992) Ecological effects of pesticides on non-target species in terrestrial ecosystems. In: Tardiff RG (ed) Methods to Assess Effects of Pesticides on Non-target Organisms. Wiley, New York, pp 171–190.Google Scholar
  237. Posthuma L, Suter GW II, Traas TP (eds) (2002) Species Sensitivity Distributions in Ecotoxicology. CRC/Lewis, Boca Raton.Google Scholar
  238. Potts GR (1986) The Partridge. Pesticides, Predation and Conservation. Collin, London.Google Scholar
  239. Power ME, Tilman D, Estes JA, Menge BA, Bond WJ, Mills SJ, Daily G, Castilla, JC, Lubchenco J, Paine RT (1996) Challenges in the quest for keystones. Bio Science 46:609–620.Google Scholar
  240. Pratt JR, Cairns J Jr (1996) Ecotoxicology and the redundancy problem: understanding effects on community structure and function. In: Newman MC, Jagoe CH (eds) Ecotoxicology. A Hierarchical Treatment. CRC/Lewis Press, Boca Raton, pp 347–370.Google Scholar
  241. Preston BL (2002) Indirect effects in aquatic ecotoxicology: implications for ecological risk assessment, Environ Manag 29:311–323.Google Scholar
  242. Ralls K, Ballou J (1983) Extinction: lessons from zoos. In: Schonewald-Cox CM, Chambers SM, MacBryde B, Thomas L (eds) Genetics and Conservation: a Reference for Managing Wild Animal and Plant Populations. Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, pp 164–184.Google Scholar
  243. Rands MRW (1985) Pesticide use on cereals and the survival of grey partridge Perdix perdix chicks in a field experiment. J Appl Ecol 22:49–54.Google Scholar
  244. Rands MRW (1986) The survival of gamebird Galliformes chicks in relation to pesticide use in cereals. Ibis 128:57–64.Google Scholar
  245. Ratcliffe D (1980) The Peregrine Falcon. T & AD Poyser, Calton, Staffs, UK.Google Scholar
  246. Reeder AL, Foley GL, Nichols DK, Hansen LG, Wikoff B, Faeh S, Eisold J, Wheeler MB, Warner R, Murphy JE, Beasley VR (1998) Forms and prevalence of intersexuality and effects of environmental contaminants in sexuality in cricket frogs (Acris crepitans). Environ Health Perspect 106:261–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Robinson RA, Sutherland WJ (2002) Post-war changes in arable farming and biodiversity in Great Britain. J Appl Ecol 39:157–176.Google Scholar
  248. Rowe G, Beebee TJC (2003) Population on the verge of a mutational meltdown? Fitness costs of genetic load for an amphibian in the wild. Evolution 57:177–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Rykiel EJ Jr (1985) Toward a definition of ecological disturbance. Aust J Ecol 10:361–365.Google Scholar
  250. Ryttman H (2003) Breeding success of Wryneck Jynx torquiila during the last 40 years in Sweden. Ornis Svec 13:25–28.Google Scholar
  251. Saccheri I, Kuussaari M, Kankare M, Fortelius W, Hanski I (1998) Inbreeding and extinction in a butterfly metapopulation. Nature (Lond) 392:491–494.Google Scholar
  252. Sallenave RM, Day KE (1991) Secondary production of benthic stream invertebrates in agricultural watersheds with different land management practices. Chemosphere 23:57–76.Google Scholar
  253. Sanchez-Hernandez JC (2003) Evaluating reptile exposure to cholinesteraseinhibiting agrochemicals by serum butyrylcholinesterase activity. Environ Toxicol Chem 22:296–905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Savidge JA (1978) Wildlife in herbicide-treated Jeffery pine plantation in eastern California. J For 76:476–478.Google Scholar
  255. Sawchik J, Dufrene M, Schickzelle N, Baguette M (2002) Metapopulation dynamics of the bog fritillary butterfly: modelling the effect of habitat fragmentation. Acta Oecol 23:287–296.Google Scholar
  256. Schmiegelow FKA, Monkkonen M (2002) Habitat loss and fragmentation in dynamic landscapes: avian perspectives from the boreal forest. Ecol Appl 12:375–389.Google Scholar
  257. Schroeder MH, Sturges DL (1975) The effect on the Brewer’s sparrow of spraying big sagebrush. J Range Manag 28:294–297.Google Scholar
  258. Schulz R (1998) Macroinvertebrate dynamics in a stream receiving insecticidecontaminated runoff. Verh Int Verein Limnol 26:1271–1276.Google Scholar
  259. Schulz R (2004) Field studies on exposure, effects, and risk mitigation of aquatic nonpoint-source insecticide pollution: a review. J Environ Qual 33:419–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Schulz R, Liess M (1999) Validity and ecological relevance of an active in situ bioassay using Gammarus pulex and Limnephilus lunatus. EnvironToxicol Chem 18:2243–2250.Google Scholar
  261. Schulz R, Peall SKC, Dabrowski JM, Reinecke AJ (2001) Spray distribution of two insecticides into surface waters in a South African orchard area. J Environ Qual 30:814–822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Schulz R, Thiere G, Dabrowski JM (2002) A combined microcosm and field approach to evaluate the aquatic toxicity of azinphosmethyl to stream communities. Environ Toxicol Chem 21:2172–2178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Scott GI, Fulton MH, Moore DW, Chandler GT, Key PB, Hampton TW, Marcus JM, Kackson KL, Bauchman SS, Trim AH, Williams L, Louden CJ, Patterson ER (1990) Agricultural Insecticide Runoff Effects on Estuarine Organisms: Correlating Laboratory and Field Toxicity Testing with Ecotoxicological Biomonitoring. CR813138. Final Project Report. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL.Google Scholar
  264. Scott GI, Fulton MH, Crosby MC, Key PB, Daughomah J, Waldren JT, Strozier ED, Louden CJ, Chandler GT, Bidleman RF, Jackson KL, Hampton TW, Hoffman T, Shulz A, Bradford M (1992) Agricultural Insecticide Runoff Effects on Estuarine Organisms: Correlating Laboratory and Field Toxicity Tests, Ecophysiology Bioassays, and Ecotoxicological Biomonitoring. CR813138-2. Final Project Report. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL.Google Scholar
  265. Sheahan D, Bates H, Hurst M, Matthiessen P, Smith A, White C, Williams R. (1999) The Impact of Pesticides on River Ecology: A Study of Headwater Streams. Environment Agency R&D Technical Report, Bristol, UK.Google Scholar
  266. Sheffield SR, Lochmiller RL (2001) Effects of field exposure to diazinon on small mammals inhabiting a semi enclosed prairie grassland ecosystem. I. ecological and reproductive effects. Environ Toxicol Chem 20:284–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Shelford VE (1911) Physiological animal geography. J Morphol 22:551–618.Google Scholar
  268. Shelford VE (1913) Animal Communities in Temperate America. University of Chicago, Chicago.Google Scholar
  269. Sherman PW, Runge MC (2002) Demography of a population collapse: the Northern Idaho ground squirrel (Spermophilus brunneus brunneus). Ecology 83:2816–2831.Google Scholar
  270. Sherratt TN, Roberts G, Williams P, Whitfield M, Biggs J, Shillabeer N, Maund SJ (1999) A life-history approach to predicting the recovery of aquatic invertebrate populations after exposure to xenobiotic chemicals. Environ Toxicol Chem 18:2512–2518.Google Scholar
  271. Shilova SA (1990) Ecological consequences of disturbances in the population structure of small mammals. In: Krivolutsky DA (ed) Bioindications of Chemical and Radioactive Pollution. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 107–129.Google Scholar
  272. Shires SW, Bennett D (1985) Contamination and effects in freshwater ditches resulting from an aerial application of cypermethrin. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 9:145–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Sibly RM, Calow P (1989) A life-cycle theory of responses to stress. Biol J Linn Soc 37:101–116.Google Scholar
  274. Slobodkin LB (1994) The connection between single species and ecosystems. In: Sutcliffe DW (ed) Water Quality and Stress Indicators: Linking Levels of Organization. Freshwater Biological Association, Ambleside, UK.Google Scholar
  275. Smith MN (2000) The hornet robberfly Asilus crabroniformis: land use and livestock grazing regimes at sites in England. English nature rep no. 387.Google Scholar
  276. Smith MN (2001) The current distribution of the hornet robberfly Asilus crabroniformis Linnaeus (Diptera, Asilidae) in England and Wales. Dipterists Dig 8:79–84.Google Scholar
  277. Snell TW, Serra M (2000) Using probability of extinction to evaluate the ecological significance of toxicant effects. Environ Toxicol Chem 19:2357–2363.Google Scholar
  278. Solomon KR, Baker DB, Richards RP, Dixon KR, Klaine SJ, La Point TW, Kendall RJ, Weisskopf CP, Giddings JM, Giesy JP, Hall LW Jr, Williams WM (1996) Ecological risk assessment of atrazine in North American surface waters. Environ Toxicol Chem 15:31–76.Google Scholar
  279. Sotherton N, Holland J (2003) Indirect effects of pesticides on farmland wildlife. In: Hoffman DJ, Rattner BA, Burton Jr GA, Cairns Jr J (eds) Handbook of Ecotoxicology. CRC/Lewis, Boca Raton, pp 1173–1195.Google Scholar
  280. Soulé ME (1987) Viable Populations for Conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  281. Southwood RE, DJ Cross (2002) Food requirements of grey partridge Perdix perdix chicks. Wildl Biol 8:175–183.Google Scholar
  282. Sparling DW, Linder G, Bishop CA (eds) (2000) Ecotoxicology of Amphibians and Reptiles. SETAC Press, Pensacola, FL.Google Scholar
  283. Sparling DW, Fellers GM, McConnell LL (2001) Pesticides and amphibian population declines in California, USA. Environ Toxicol Chem 20:1591–1595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Stansley W, Roscoe DE (1999) Chlordane poisoning of birds in New Jersey, USA. Environ Toxicol Chem 18:2095–2099.Google Scholar
  285. Stearns SC (1992) The Evolution of Life Histories. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  286. Stearns SC, Crandall RE (1984) Plasticity of age and size at sexual maturity: a life history response to unavoidable stress. In: Potts G, Wootton R (eds) Fish Reproduction. Academic Press, London, pp 13–34.Google Scholar
  287. Stewart PM, Scribailo RW, Simon TP (1999) The use of aquatic macrophytes in monitoring and in assessment of biological integrity. Environ Sci Forum 96:275–302.Google Scholar
  288. Stowe TJ, Newton AV, Green RE, Mayes E (1993) The decline of the corncrake Crex crex in Britain and Ireland in relation to habitat. J Appl Ecol 30:53–62.Google Scholar
  289. Sullivan DS, Sullivan TP, Bisalputra T (1981) Effects of Roundup® herbicide on diatom populations in the aquatic environment of a coastal forest. Bull Environ Contamin Toxicol 26:91–96.Google Scholar
  290. Suter GW II (1993) Ecological Risk Assessment. Lewis, Boca Raton.Google Scholar
  291. Tagatz ME (1976) Effect of mirex on predator-prey interaction in an experimental estuarine ecosystem. Trans Am Fish Soc 105:546–549.Google Scholar
  292. Talent LG, Dumont JN, Bantle JA, Janz DM, Talent SG (2002) Evaluation of western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) and eastern fence lizard (Sceloporus undulates) as laboratory reptile models for toxicological investigations. Environ Toxicol Chem 21:899–905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. Tanaka Y (2000) Extinction of populations by inbreeding depression under stochastic environments. Pop Ecol 42:55–62.Google Scholar
  294. Tanaka Y (2003) Ecological risk assessment of pollutant chemicals: extinction risk based on population-level effects. Chemosphere 53:421–425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. Taub FB (1997) Are ecological studies relevant to pesticide decisions? Ecol Appl 7:1083–1085.Google Scholar
  296. ter Braak CJF, Smilauer P (1998) CANOCO Reference Manual and Users’ Guide to CANOCO for Windows: Software for Canonical Community Ordination (Version 4). Microcomputer Power, Ithaca, NY.Google Scholar
  297. Tew TE, MacDonald DW, Rands MRW (1992) Herbicide application affects microhabitat use by arable wood mice Apodemus sylvaticus. J Appl Ecol 29:532–539.Google Scholar
  298. Thompson HM (2002) Sub-lethal effects in honeybees: their significance and use in pesticide risk assessment. DEFRA Funded R and D Project PN0944 final report, pp 13.Google Scholar
  299. Thompson HM, Hunt LV (1999) Extrapolating from honeybees to bumblebees in pesticide risk assessment. Ecotoxicology 8:147–166.Google Scholar
  300. Tones SJ, Ellis SA, Breeze VG, Fowbert J, Miller PCH, Oakley JN, Parkin CS, Arnold DJ (2001) Review and evaluation of test species and methods for assessing exposure of non-target plants and invertebrates to crop pesticide sprays and spray drift (desk study). DEFRA project number PN 0937. p. 76.Google Scholar
  301. Touart LW, Maciorowski AF (1997) Information needs for pesticide registration in the United States. Ecol Appl 7:1086–1093.Google Scholar
  302. US EPA (2002) Methods for evaluating wetland condition. #12 Using amphibians in bioassessments of wetlands. EPA-822-R-02-022. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  303. van Apeldoorm RC, Celada C, Nieuwenhuizen W (1994) Distribution and dynamics of the red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) in a landscape with fragmented habitat. Land Ecol 9:227–235.Google Scholar
  304. Van den Brink PJ, Van Wijngaarden RPA, Lucassen WGH, Brock TCM, Leeuwangh P (1996) Effects of the insecticide Dursban® 4E (active ingredient chlorpyrifos) in outdoor experimental ditches: II. Invertebrate community responses and recovery. Environ Toxicol Chem 15:1143–1153.Google Scholar
  305. Van der Hoeven N, Gerritsen AA (1997) Effects of chlorpyrifos on individuals and populations of Daphnia pulex in the laboratory and field. Environ Toxicol Chem 16:2438–2447.Google Scholar
  306. Van Geest GJ, Zwaardemaker NG, Van Wijngaarden, RPA, Cuppen JGM (1999) Effects of a pulsed treatment with the herbicide Afalon (active ingredient linuron) on macrophyte-dominated mesocosms. II. Structural responses. Environ Toxicol Chem 18:2866–2874.Google Scholar
  307. van Langevelde F (2000) Scale of habitat connectivity and colonization in fragmented nuthatch populations. Ecography 23:614–622.Google Scholar
  308. Van Vlaardingen P, Traas T, Aldenburg T (2003) ETX-2000: Normal Distribution Based Hazardous Concentration and Potentially Affected Fraction. RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  309. Wagner C, Lokke H (1991) Estimation of ecotoxicological protection levels from NOEC toxicity data. Water Res 25:1237–1242.Google Scholar
  310. Wake DB (1991) Declining amphibian populations. Science 253:860.Google Scholar
  311. Wang G, Edge WD, Wolff JO (2001) Demographic uncertainty in ecological risk assessments. Ecol Model 136:95–102.Google Scholar
  312. Wardhaugh KG, Holter P, Longstaff B (2001) The development and survival of three species of coprophagous insect after feeding on the faeces of sheep treated with controlled-release formulations of ivermectin or albendazole. Aust Vet J 79:125–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. Watson J, Watson A, Paull D, Freudenberger D (2003) Woodland fragmentation is causing the decline of species and functional groups of birds in southeastern Australia. Pac Conserv Biol 8:261–270.Google Scholar
  314. Wickham JD, Wu J, Bradford DF (1997) A conceptual framework for selecting and analyzing stressor data to study species richness at large spatial scales. Environ Manag 21:247–257.Google Scholar
  315. Williams RJ, Brooke DN, Clare RW, Matthiessen P, Mitchell RDJ (1996) Rosemaund Pesticide Transport Study 1987–1993. Report No. 129. Institute of Hydrology, Wallingford, UK.Google Scholar
  316. Wilson AM, Vickery JA, Browne SJ (2001) Numbers and distribution of northern lapwings Vanellus vanellus breeding in England and Wales in 1998. Bird Study 48:2–17.Google Scholar
  317. Wilson JD, Morris AJ, Arroyo BE, Clark SC, Bradbury RB (1999) A review of the abundance and diversity of invertebrate and plant foods of granivorous birds in northern Europe in relation to agricultural change. Agric Ecosyst Environ 75:13–30.Google Scholar
  318. Wingfield Gibbons D, Reid JB, Chapmand RA (1993) The New Atlas of Breeding Birds in Britain and Ireland: 1988–1991. T & AD Poyser, London.Google Scholar
  319. Withgott J (2002) Amphibian decline. Ubiquitous herbicide emasculates frogs. Science 296:447–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. Woin P (1998) Short-and long-term effects of the pyrethroid insecticide fenvalerate on an invertebrate pond community. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 41:137–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. Zhao Y, Newman MC (2004) Shortcomings of the laboratory derived LC50 for predicting mortality in field populations: exposure duration and latent mortality. Environ Toxicol Chem 23:2147–2153.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael C. Newman
    • 1
  • Mark Crane
    • 2
  • Graham Holloway
    • 3
  1. 1.College of William and MaryVirginia Institute of Marine ScienceGloucester PointUSA
  2. 2.Watts & Crane AssociatesFaringdon, OxfordshireUK
  3. 3.School of Animal and Microbial SciencesUniversity of ReadingWhiteknights, ReadingUK

Personalised recommendations