Advertisement

Motivation and the Assessment of Sports-Related Concussion

  • Christopher M. Bailey
  • Peter A. Arnett

Abstract

This chapter provides a review of the limited information that is available regarding the impact of motivation on the neuropsychological assessment of sports-related concussion. We first outline what is known about the impact of motivation on assessment by identifying how the impact that differential motivation on baseline and post-concussion evaluations may obscure the true cognitive deficits of concussion. Next, we provide a review of two studies which provide some direct empirical evidence for differential motivation in baseline and post-concussion testing. This is followed by a review of possible causative factors associated with poor baseline motivation including: personality style, lack of education, and active misrepresentation. Next, the possible methods for identification of athletes with poor motivation on testing are presented. This includes both the use of objective measures of motivation and the identification of testing patterns consistent with poor motivation. Finally, the chapter concludes with the identification that more empirical research on each of the covered topics is necessary.

Keywords

Concussion Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Motivation Effort Sports 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Miller, H. (1961). Accident neurosis. British Medical Journal, 1, 919–925 and 992–998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Binder, R.L., Trimble, M.R., & McNiel, D.E. (1991). The course of psychological symptoms after resolution of lawsuits. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 1073–1075.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Binder, L.M. (1993). Deception and malingering after mild head trauma with the Portland Digit Recognition Test. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 15, 170–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Greiffenstein, M., Baker, W.J., & Gola, T. (1994). Validation of malingered amnesia measures with a large clinical sample. Psychological Assesment, 6, 218–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Millis, S.R. (1992). The Recognition Memory Test in the detection of malingered and exaggerated memory deficits. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 6, 405–413.Google Scholar
  6. Green, P., Rohling, M.L., Lees-Haley, P.R., & Allen, L.M. (2001). Effort has a greater effect on test scores than severe brain injury in compensation claimants. Brain Injury, 15, 1045–1060.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Echemendia, R., & Cantu, R. (2003). Return to play following sports-related mild traumatic brain injury: the role for neuropsychology. Applied Neuropsychology, 10, 48–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Echemendia, R.J., & Julian, L.J., (2001). Mild traumatic brain injury in sports: Neuropsychology’s contribution to a developing field. Neuropsychology Review, 11, 69–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barth, J.T., Alves, W.M., Ryan, T.V., Macciocchi, S.N., Rimel, R.W., Jane, J.A., & Nelson, W.E. (1989). Mild head injury in sports: Neuropsychological sequelae and recovery of function. In Levin, H.S., Eisenberg, H.M., and Benton, A.L. (eds.), Mild Head Injury. New York: Oxford University Press, 257–275.Google Scholar
  10. Erlanger, D.M., Kutner, K.C., Barth, J.T., & Barnes, R. (1999). Neuropsychology of sports-related head injury: Dementia Pugilistica to Post Concussive Syndrome. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 13, 193–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Lezak, M.D., Howieson, D.B, & Loring (2005). Neuropsychological assessment (4 th Edition). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Gerberich, S.G., Priest, J.D., Boen, J.R., Straub, C.P., & Maxwell, R.E. (1983). Concussion incidences and severity in secondary school varsity football players. American Journal of Public Health, 73, 1370–1375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Guskiewicz, K.N., Weaver, N.L., Padua, D.A., & Garret, W.E. Jr. (2000). Epidemiology of concussion in high school football players. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 28(5), 643–650PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Gennarelli, T.A., Thibault, L.E., Adams, J.H., Graham, D.I., Thompson, C.J., Marcincin, R.P. (1982). Diffuse axonal injury and traumatic coma in the primate. Annals of Neurology, 12(6), 564–574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cantu, R.C., & Voy, R. (1995). Second impact syndrome: A risk in any contact sport. The Physician and Sports Medicine, 23, 27–34.Google Scholar
  16. Bailey, CM., Echemendia, R.J., Arnett, P.A. (under submission). The sensitivity of performance errors to mild traumatic brain injury in an athletic population. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology.Google Scholar
  17. Bailey, CM., Echemendia, R.J., Arnett, P.A. (under review). The impact of motivation on neuropsychological performance in sports-related mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society.Google Scholar
  18. Alves, W.A., Macchiocchi, S.N., & Barth, J.T. (1993). Postconcussive symptoms after mild head injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 8, 48–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Vanderploeg, R.D., Curtiss, G., & Belanger, H.G. (2005). Long-term neuropsychological outcomes following mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11, 228–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Speer, D.C. (1992). Clinically significant change: Jacobson and Truax (1991) revisited. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 402–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Speer, D.C. & Greenbaum, P.E. (1995). Five methods for computing significant individual client change and improvement rates: Support for an individual growth curve approach. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 1044–1048.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chamorro-Premuzic, T. & Furnham, A. (2005). Personality and intellectual competence. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  23. Busato, V.V., Prins, F.J., Elshout. J.J., & Hamaker, C. (2000). Intellectual ability, learning style, achievement motivation and academic success of psychology students in higher education. Personality and Individual Differences, 28, 1057–1068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Eysenck, H.J. (1967). The biological basis of personality. Springfield, IL: Thomas.Google Scholar
  25. Eysenck, H.J. (1994) Personality and intelligence: Psychometric and experimental approaches. In RJ. Sternberg & P. Ruzgis (Eds.), Personality and intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Ackerman, P.L., & Heggestad, E.D. (1997). Intelligence, personality, and interests: Evidence for overlapping traits. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 219–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Austin, E.J., Dreary, I.J., Whiteman, M.C., Fowkes, F.-G.R., Pedersen, N.L., & Rabbitt, P., et al. (2002). Relationships between ability and personality: Does intelligence contribute positively to personal and social adjustment? Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 1391–1411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lynn, R., Hampson, S., & Magee, M. (1984). Home background, intelligence, personality and education as predictors of unemployment in young people. Personality and Individual Differences, 5, 549–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Furnham, A., Forde, L., & Cotter, T. (1998). Personality and intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 24, 187–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Moutafi, J. Furnham, A., Crump, J. (2003). Demographic and personality predictors of intelligence: A study using the NEO-Personality Inventory and the Myers-Briggs Type Indictor. European Journal of Personality, 17, 79–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Moutafi, J., Furnham, A., & Paltiel, L. (2005). Can personality factors predict intelligence? Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 1021–1033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Boekaerts, M. (1995). Self-regulated learning: Bridging the gap between metacognitive and metamotivation theories. Educational Psychologist, 30, 195–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Calvo, M. G., & Carreiras, M. (1993). Selective influence of test anxiety on reading processes. British Journal of Psychology, 84(5).Google Scholar
  34. Eysenck, M. W., & Calvo, M. G. (1992). Anxiety and performance: The processing efficiency theory. Cognition & Emotion, 6(6).Google Scholar
  35. Hartlage, S., Alloy, L.B., Vazquez, C., & Dykman, B. (1993). Automatic and effortful processing in depression. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 247–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Veiel, H.O.F. (1997). A preliminary profile of neuropsychological deficits associated with major depression. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 19, 587–603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Costa, P.T., Jr. & McCrae, R.R. (1992). Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-factor Inventory (NEO-FFI): Professional Manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  38. Zeidner, M., & Matthews, G. (2000). Intelligence and personality. In R. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of intelligence. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Brand, C.R. (1994). Open to experience-closed to inelligence: Why the “Big Five” are really the “Comprehensive Six.” European Journal of Personality, 8, 299–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Echemendia, R.J. & Cantu, R. (2004). Return to play following cerebral brain injury. In Lovell, M., Barth, J., Collins, M., & Echemendia, R. (Eds.) Traumatic Brain Injury in Sports. London: Psychology Press (UK).Google Scholar
  41. Stiller, J.W., & Weinberger, D.R. (1985). Boxing and chronic brain damage. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 8, 339–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Guilmette, T.J. & Paglia, M.F. (2004) The public’s misconceptions about traumatic brain injury: A follow-up survey. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 19, 183–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Echemendia, R.J. (1997). Neuropsychological assessment of college athletes: The Penn State Concussion Program. Paper presented at the meeting of the National Academy of Neuropsychology, Las Vegas, NV.Google Scholar
  44. Allen, L.M., Conder, R.L., Green, P., Cox, D.R. (1997). CARB’ 97: Computerized Assessment of Response Bias. Manual. Durham, NC: CogniSyst.Google Scholar
  45. Larrabee, GJ. (2005) Assessment of Malingering. In Larrabee, G.J. (Ed.) Forensic Neuropsychology: A scientific approach. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Green, P., Iverson, G.L., & Allen, L.M. (1999). Detecting malingering in head injury litigation with the Word Memory Test. Brain Injury, 13, 813–819.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rees, L.M., Tombaugh, T.N., Gansler, D., & Moczynski, N. (1998). Five validation experiments of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM). Psychological Assessment, 10, 10–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Frederick, R.I. (1997). Validity Indicator Profile manual. Minnetonka, MN: NCS Assessments.Google Scholar
  49. Dunn, T.M., Shear, P.K., Howe, S., & Ris, D.M. (2003). Detecting neuropsychological malingering: Effects of coaching and information. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 18, 121–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wechsler, D. (1997a). WAIS-III. Administration and Scoring Manual. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt, Brace, & Co.Google Scholar
  51. Wechsler, D. (1997b). WMS-III. Administration and Scoring Manual. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt, Brace, & Co.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher M. Bailey
    • 1
  • Peter A. Arnett
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations