Design for Changeover (DFC)

Enabling the design of highly flexible, highly responsive manufacturing processes
  • Michael P. Reik
  • Richard I. McIntosh
  • Geraint W. Owen
  • A.R. Mileham
  • Steve J. Culley
Part of the International Series in Operations Research & Management Science book series (ISOR, volume 87)


A rapid changeover capability is central for today’s thinking concerning responsive, small batch manufacturing. The customer-driven mass customization paradigm places emphasis on satisfying market demands, particularly in terms of product individualization and ready delivery. Changeover capability is prominent in such a time-based manufacturing environment, where successful companies have to be able to adapt swiftly to market turbulence and at the same time avoid the traditionally high unit costs associated with custom made or small volume products.

Existing tools to improve changeover performance primarily address retrospective improvement, which can be achieved with an emphasis either on refining the activity of those conducting the changeover or changing the hardware that is worked upon. Although there is a choice as to where emphasis might be directed it has been found that retrospective programs are in practice very often led with a strong emphasis on low expenditure and organizational change. Equipment modification opportunities can be significantly undervalued.

Beyond retrospective improvement an excellent changeover capability can also be provided at the outset as an element of overall process equipment capability. The OEM’s challenge to build and market changeover-capable equipment is potentially greatly assisted by the availability of a coherent design for changeover (DFC) methodology, Drawing lessons from the development of various DFX methodologies, including design for assembly and design for variety, this chapter discusses the early development of a design for changeover methodology to assist OEMs and other groups responsible for the design and adaptation of process hardware.

Key words

Design for Changeover (DFC) Design for X (DFX) Equipment Design Responsiveness Flexibility Set-up Reduction 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael P. Reik
    • 1
  • Richard I. McIntosh
    • 1
  • Geraint W. Owen
    • 1
  • A.R. Mileham
    • 1
  • Steve J. Culley
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of BathBathUK

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