Adrenaline Increases Carotid Body CO2 Sensitivity: An in vivo Study



Alveolar ventilation rises proportionally with metabolic rate during exercise and thus arterial Pco2 remains constant or may even fall slightly. The mechanism underlying this isocapnic hyperpnea, by which ventilation is coupled so precisely to metabolism, however, remains unclear. We have shown recently (Bin-Jaliah et al., 2004), that an increased metabolic rate, induced by insulin infusion, could produce an isocapnic hyperpnoea in an anaesthetized rat and subsequently, we showed that this hyperpnoea was correlated with an increase in the CO2 sensitivity, or gain, of the carotid body such that ventilation could be increased without hypercapnia. Low glucose can stimulate catecholamine release from carotid body tissue (Pardal & Lopez Barneo, 2002) but we demonstrated that the effect we observed in vivo could not be due to an insulin-induced fall in blood glucose concentration (Bin-Jaliah et al., 2005). We speculated that some other blood borne factor may be involved, and we in this present study, we evaluated the role of circulating adrenaline in the augmentation of chemoreceptor gain. Adrenaline has long been mooted as a possible feed forward factor involved in exercise hyperpnoea (Linton et al., 1992) and is know to be released in both hypoglycaemic states (Vollmer et al., 1997) and during exercise (Christensen et al., 1983).


High Performance Liquid Chromatography Carotid Body Plasma Adrenaline Adrenaline Infusion Ethyl Carbamate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bin-Jaliah I., Maskell P.D., Kumar P. Carbon dioxide sensitivity during hypoglycaemia-induced, elevated metabolism in the anaethetized rat. J Physiol 2005; 563: 883–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bin-Jaliah I., Maskell P.D., Kumar P. Indirect sensing of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia by the caroid body in the rat. J Physiol 2004; 556: 255–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Christensen N.J., Galbo H. Sympathetic nervous activity during exercise. Ann Rev Physiol 1983; 45: 139–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dempsey J.A. Exercise hyperpnea. Chairman's introduction. Adv Exp Med Biol 1995; 393: 133–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Folgering H., Ponte J., Sadig T. Adrenergic mechanisms and chemoreception in the carotid body of the rat and cat. J Physiol 1982; 325: 1–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Hickham J.B., Pryor W.W., Page E.B., Atwell R.J. Respiratory regulation during exercise in unconditioned subjects. J Clin Invest 1951; 30: 503–16.Google Scholar
  7. Joels N. and White H. (1968). The contribution of the arterial chemoreceptors to the stimulation of respiration by adrenaline and noradrenaline in the cat. J Physiol. 197: 1–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Kjaer M. Regulation of hormonal and metabolic responses during exercise in humans. Ex Sport Sci Rev 1992; 20: 161–184.Google Scholar
  9. Linton R.A.F., Band D.M. Wolff C.B. Carotid chemoreceptor discharge during epinephrine infusion in anesthetized cats. J Appl Physiol 1992; 73: 2420–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Pardal R., Lopez-Barneo J. Low glucose-sensing cells in the carotid body. Nat Neurosci 2002 ;5: 197–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Paterson D.J. Respiratory control during exercise. Can J Appl Physiol. 1994; 19: 289–304.Google Scholar
  12. Read D.J.C. A clinical method for assessing the ventilatory response to carbon dioxide. Australas Ann Med 1967; 16: 20–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Tompkins E.H., Sturgis C.C., Wearn J.T. Studies on epinephrine. Arch Intern Med 1919; 24: 269–71.Google Scholar
  14. Vollmer R.R., Balcita J.J., Sved A.F., Edwards D.J. Adrenal epinephrine and norepinephrine release to hypoglycaemia measured by microdialysis in conscious rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 1997; 273: 1758–63.Google Scholar
  15. Weil J.V., Byrne-Quinn E., Sodal I.E., Kline J.S., McCullough R.E., Filley G.F. Augmentation of chemosensitivity during mild exercise in normal man. J Appl Physiol 1972; 33: 813–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

    • 1
    • 1
    • 2
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physiology, The Medical SchoolUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamUK
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology, The Medical SchoolUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamUK

Personalised recommendations