Advertisement

Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Enhances Carotid Body Chemosensory Responses to Acute Hypoxia

  • RODRIGO ITURRIAGA
  • SERGIO REY
  • JULIO ALCAYAGA
  • RODRIGO DEL RIO
Part of the ADVANCES IN EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY book series (AEMB, volume 580)

Abstract

Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), characterized by short episodes of hypoxia followed by normoxia, is a common feature of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). It has been proposed that CIH enhances the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) leading to hypertension, upregulation of catecholaminergic and reninangiotensin systems (Fletcher, 2000; Prabhakar and Peng, 2004). Most of the information of the effects of CIH on peripheral chemoreflex control of cardiovascular and respiratory systems has been obtained from studies performed on OSA patients. However, conclusions from these studies are conflictive because of comorbidities associated with OSA (Narkiewicz et al., 1999). Experiments performed in rats showed that CIH enhances HVR (Ling et al., 2001) and produces long-term facilitation of respiratory motor activity (McGuire et al., 2003; Peng & Prabhakar, 2003). The facilitator effect of CIH on HVR has been attributed to a potentiation of the carotid body (CB) chemosensory responses to acute hypoxia. However, it is a matter of debate if the ventilatory potentiation induced by CIH is due to a CB enhanced activity or secondary to central facilitation of chemosensory input. Peng et al., (2001) found that basal CB discharges and chemosensory responses to acute hypoxia were enhanced in rats exposed to a pattern of 5% O2 for 15s followed by normoxia for 5 min, repeated 8 hours/day for 10 days. However, this observation has not been confirmed in other animal models of CIH. Using a protocol of short hypoxic episodes, we studied the effects of CIH on cat cardiorespiratory reflexes and CB chemosensory responses induced by hypoxia.

Keywords

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Heart Rate Variability Carotid Body Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patient Acute Hypoxia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Fletcher EC (2000). Effect of episodic hypoxia on sympathetic activity and blood pressure. Respir Physiol 119, 189–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Fletcher EC, Lesske J, Behm R, Miller CC, Stauss H, & Unger T (1992). Carotid chemoreceptors, systemic blood pressure, and chronic episodic hypoxia mimicking sleep apnoea. J Appl Physiol 72, 1978–1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Greenberg HE, Sica A, Batson D & Scharf SM (1999). Chronic intermittent hypoxia increases sympathetic responsiveness to hypoxia and hypercapnia. J Appl Physio 86, 298–305.Google Scholar
  4. Iturriaga R, Alcayaga J & Rey S (1998). Sodium nitroprusside blocks the cat carotid chemosensory inhibition induced by dopamine, but not that by hyperoxia. Brain Res 799, 26–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ling L, Fuller DD, Bach KB, Kinkead R, Olson EB & Mitchell GS (2001). Chronic intermittent hypoxia elicits serotonin-dependent plasticity in the central neural control of breathing. J Neurosci 21, 5381–5388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. McGuire M, Zhang Y, White DP & Ling L (2003). Chronic intermittent hypoxia enhances ventilatory long-term facilitation in awake rats. J Appl Physiol 95, 1499–1508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Narkiewicz K, Montano N, Cogliati C, Van de Borne PJ, Dyken ME & Somers VK (1998). Altered cardiovascular variability in obstructive sleep apnea. Circulation 98, 1071–1077.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Narkiewicz K, Van De Borne PJ, Pesek CA, Dyken ME, Montano N & Somers VK (1999). Selective potentiation of peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity in obstructive sleep apnea. Circulation 99, 1183–1189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Peng YJ, Kline D, Dick TE & Prabhakar NR (2001). Chronic intermittent hypoxia enhances carotid body chemoreceptor response to low oxygen. Adv Exp Med Biol 499, 33–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Peng YJ & Prabhakar NR (2003). Reactive oxygen species in the plasticity of breathing elicited by chronic intermittent hypoxia. J Appl Physiol 94, 2342–2349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Prabhakar NR & Peng YJ (2004). Peripheral chemoreceptors in health and disease. J Appl Physiol 96, 359–366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Sica AL, Greenberg HE, Ruggiero DA & Scharf SM (2000). Chronic-intermittent hypoxia: a model of sympathetic activation in the rat. Respir Physiol 121, 173–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Tarvainen MP, Ranta-Aho PO & Karjalainen PA (2002). An advanced detrending method with application to HRV analysis. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 49, 172–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology (1996). Heart rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use. Eur Heart J 17, 354–381.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • RODRIGO ITURRIAGA
    • 1
  • SERGIO REY
    • 1
  • JULIO ALCAYAGA
    • 2
  • RODRIGO DEL RIO
    • 1
  1. 1.Oratorio de Neurobiología, Facultad de Ciencias BiologicasUniversidad Católica de ChileChile
  2. 2.Laboratorio de Fisiologia Celular, Facultad de CienciasUniversidad de Chile. SantiagoSantiagoChile

Personalised recommendations