Immunolocalization of Tandem Pore Domain K+ Channels in the Rat Carotid Body



Tandem pore domain K+ channels can be divided into six subfamilies; TWIK, TASK, TREK, TALK, THIK and TRESK (Patel and Lazdunski, 2004). Its subfamily consists of several subunits. These channel subunits. have 4 transmembrane segments and 2 pore domains. These channels are ubiquitously expressed in the body including central and peripheral nervous systems. Of these channels, TASK (TWIK-related acid-sensitive K+ channels) family including TASK-1, TASK-2 and TASK-3 are inhibited by extracellular low pH (Lesage, 2003). In addition, it has been shown that TASK-1 and TASK-3 are closed by hypoxia (Hartness et al., 2001; Lewis et al., 2001). Thus, these channels are one of the candidates for oxygen and/or CO2/H+ sensor in chemosensory cells. In the isolated glomus cells of the carotid body, Buckler et al. (2000) found TASK-like current with electrophysiological method and expression of TASK-1 mRNA. On the other hand, TREK (TWIK-related K+ channels), comprises three subunits, TREK-1, TREK-2 and TRAAK (Kim, 2003). These channels are regulated by polyunsaturated fatty acid, cellular volume, intracellular pH and general anesthetics. It has been suggested that they play an important role in potent neuroprotection (Lesage, 2003). Furthermore, Miller et al. (2003) reported that acute hypoxia occluded human TREK-1 expressed in the HEK293 cells under ischemic and/or acidic conditions. On the contrary, other reports demonstrated that TREK-1 was not oxygen sensitive (Buckler and Honore, 2005; Caley et al., 2005). To discuss the function of the tandem pore domain K+ channels in the chemosensory organ, we reported that the immunoreactivities for TASK and TREK subfamilies in the carotid body (Yamamoto et al., 2002; Yamamoto and Taniguchi, 2004). Furthermore, no immunoreactivity for TRAAK was found in the paraganglion cells in the sympathetic ganglia (Yamamoto and Taniguchi, 2003). In the present study, therefore, we summarize the immunohistochemical localization of tandem pore domain K+ channels in the rat paraganglion cells.


Carotid Body Sympathetic Ganglion Superior Laryngeal Nerve Glomus Cell Chemosensory Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Buckler, K. J., and Honore, E. The lipid-activated two-pore domain K+ channel TREK-1 is resistant to hypoxia: implication for ischcaemic neuroprotection. J Physiol 2005; 562: 213–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Buckler, K.J., Williams, B.A, and Honore, E. An oxygen-, acid- and anaesthetic-sensitive TASK-like background potassium channel in rat arterial chemoreceptor cells. J Physiol 2000; 525: 135–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Caley, A.J., Gruss, M., and Franks, N.P. The effects of hypoxia on the modulation of human TREK-1 potassium channels. J Physiol 2005; 562: 205–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dalmaz, Y., Borghini, N., Pequignot, J.M., and Peyrin, L. “Presence of chemosensitive SIF cells in the rat sympathetic ganglia: a biochemical, immunocytochemical and pharmacological study.” In: Chemoreceptors and Chemoreceptor Reflexes, H. Acker, A. Trzebski, R.G O'Regan eds. New York; Plenum Press, 1990; pp 393–399Google Scholar
  5. Hartness, ME., Lewis, A., Searle, G.J., O'Kelly, I., Peers, C., and Kemp, P.J. Combined antisense and pharmacological approaches implicate hTASK as an airway O2 sensing K+ channel. J Biol Chem 2001; 276: 26499–26508PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kemp, P.J., Searle, G.J., Hartness, M.E., Lewis, A., Miller P., Williams, S., Wooton, P., Adriaensen, D., and Peers, C. Acute oxygen sensing in cellular models: relevance to the physiology of pulmonary neuroepithelial and carotid bodies. Anat Rec 2003; 270A: 41–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kim, D. Fatty acid-sensitive two-pore domain K+ channels. Trend. Pharmacol Sci 2003; 24: 648–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lesage, F. Pharmacology of neuronal background potassium channels. Neuropharmacology 2003; 44: 1–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lewis, A., Hartness, ME., Chapman, C.G, Fearon, I.M., Meadows, H.J., Peers, C., and Kemp, P.J. Recombinant hTASKl is an O2-sensitive K+ channel. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2001; 285: 1290–1294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Miller, P., Kemp, P.J., Lewis, A., Chapman, C.G, Meadows, H.J., and Peers, C. Acute hypoxia occludes hTREK-1 modulation: re-evaluation of the potential role of tamdem P domain K+ channels in central neuroprotection. J Physiol 2003; 548: 31–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Miller, P, and Kemp, P.J. Polymodal regulation of hTREKl by pH, arachidonic acid, and hypoxia: physiological impact in acidosis and alkalosis. Am J Physiol 2004; 286: C272–C282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. O'Leary, D.M., Murphy, A., Pickering, M., and Jones, J.F.X. Arterial chemoreceptors in the superior laryngeal nerve of the rat. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2004; 141: 137–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Patel, A.J., and Lazdunski, M. The 2P-domain K+ channels: role in apoptosis and tumorigenesis. Pflügers Arch 2004; 448: 261–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Roy, A., Razanov, C., Mokashi, A., and Lahiri, S. PO2-PCO2 stimulus interaction in [Ca2+] and CSN activity in the adult rat carotid body, Respir Physiol 2000; 122: 15–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Sanchez, D., Lopez-Lopez, J.R., Perez-Garcia, MT., Sanz-Alfayate, G., Obeso, A., Ganfornina, M.D., and Gonzalez, C. Molecular identification of KVα subunits that contribute to the oxygen sensitive K+ current of chemoreceptor cells of the rabbit carotid body. J Physiol 2002; 542: 369–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Yamamoto, Y., Kummer, W., Atoji, Y., and Suzuki, Y. TASK-1, TASK-2, TASK-3 and TRAAK immunoreactivities in the rat carotid body. Brain Res 2002; 950: 304–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Yamamoto, Y., and Taniguchi, K. Heterogeneous expression of TASK-3 and TRAAK in rat paraganglionic cells. Histochem Cell Biol 2003; 120: 335–339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Yamamoto, Y., and Taniguchi, K. Expression of tandem P domain K+ channels, TREK-1, TREK-2 and TRAAK, in the rat carotid body. Anat Sci Int 2004; 79 Suppl: 372Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

    • 1
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of AgricultureIwate UniversityIwateJAPAN

Personalised recommendations