Universal Seven-Cluster Structure of Genome Fragment Distribution: Basic Symmetry in Triplet Frequencies

  • A. Gorban
  • A. Zinovyev
  • T. PopovaEmail author


We found a universal seven-cluster structure in bacterial genomic sequences and explained its properties. Based on the analysis of 143 completely sequenced bacterial genomes available in GenBank in August 2004, we show that there are four ‘pure’ types of the seven-cluster structure observed. The type of cluster structure depends on GC content and reflects basic symmetry in triplet frequencies. Animated 3D-scatters of bacterial genomes seven-cluster structure are available on our web site:

Key words

triplet frequencies genome fragments codons mean-field approximation symmetry visualization 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Mathematical ModelingUniversity of LeicesterLeicesterUK
  2. 2.Institutes des Hautes Etudes ScientifiquesBures-sur-YvetteFrance
  3. 3.Institute of Computational ModelingKrasnoyarskRussia

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