The Educational Context: The Call for Reform

Part of the CERC Studies in Comparative Education book series (CERC, volume 15)


Formal Education Educational System Formal System Educational Context Formal School 
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  1. 1.
    Coombs spoke about NFE in industrialised societies as being concemed with the preparation of children for formal schooling (pre-school), extra-curricula activities inside formal schooling, and continuing and further education after schooling Coombs et al. 1973: 25–26.Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    The construct of ‘developing societies’ as consisting mainly of ‘villages’ (also constructed) which were invariably poor has been pointed out several times, e.g. Escobar 1995: 47–48.Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    These statements were frequently repeated or adapted. For example, Ahmed 1982: 135–136: failures in external efficiency (i.e. relevance), internal efficiency, and equity; Bhola 1983: 45: there is not enough, not enough money, high costs, inadequate outputs, and inefficiency. Brembeck 1974 said that formal education was too costly to meet increasing demand, was ineffective, and increased inequalities. Even today the same comments are being made: Hoppers 2000a:5 says there is a view that formal education is too costly, unresponsive and impervious to change, exclusive, and irrelevant.Google Scholar
  4. 5.
    In Ireland, it was estimated in 1981 that if the costs rose at the same rate, by the year 1991, the size of the education bill would be higher than the total government spending in 1981 (Tussing 1978).Google Scholar
  5. 7.
    Indigenous education “is meant to refer to any formalized (i.e. culturally codified, recognized and/or authorized) system of instruction that is not a direct descendant of modern European public schooling” (Wagner 1999: 283).Google Scholar
  6. 9.
    Youngman sees these tensions in class terms: that the capitalist class seeks to use education for the maintenance of the status quo and the subordinated classes and groups seek to use it to challenge the status quo and to achieve greater equality of opportunity in (and presumably through) education (Youngman 2000: 35–36). But the class discourses seem no longer to fit contemporary societies (Laclau & Mouffe 1990).Google Scholar

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© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

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