Multimedia Adaptation and Browsing on Small Displays

  • Xing Xie
  • Wei-Ying Ma
Part of the Web Information Systems Engineering and Internet Technologies Book Series book series (WISE, volume 2)


As a great many of new devices with diverse capabilities are making a population boom, their limited display sizes are becoming the major obstacle that undermines the usefulness of these devices for information access. In this chapter, we introduce our recent research on adapting multimedia content including images, videos and web pages for browsing on small-form-factor devices. A theoretical framework as well as a set of novel methods for presenting and rendering multimedia under limited screen sizes is introduced to improve the user experience. A system framework has also been proposed to provide the content modelling and processing as subscription-based web services on the Internet.


Small display content adaptation attention model mobile device edge computing content delivery networks 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Badros, G., Borning, A., Marriott, K., and Stuckey, P. (1999). Constraint cascading style sheets for the web. In UIST’ 99 Proc., pages 73–82, Asheville, USA.Google Scholar
  2. BickMore, T.W. and Schilit, B.N. (1997). Digestor: device-independent access to the world wide web. In WWW’ 97 Proc., pages 655–663, Santa Clara, USA.Google Scholar
  3. Borning, A., Lin, R.K., and Marriott, K. (2000). Constraint-based document layout for the web. ACM Multimedia Systems Journal, 8(3):177–189.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. Bruijn, O. and Spence, R. (2000). Rapid serial visual presentation: a spacetime trade-off in information presentation. In AVI’ 00 Proc., pages 189–192, Palermo, Italy.Google Scholar
  5. Buyukkokten, O., Kaljuvee, O., Garcia-Molina, H., Paepcke, A., and Winograd, T. (2002). Efficient web browsing on handheld devices using page and form summarization. ACM Trans. on Info. Syst., 20(1):82–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen, J.L., Zhou, B.Y., Shi, J., Zhang, H.J., and Wu, Q.F. (2001). Function based object model towards website adaptation. In WWW’ 01 Proc., pages 587–596, Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  7. Chen, L.Q., Xie, X., Fan, X., Ma, WY., Zhang, H.J., and Zhou, H.Q. (2003). A visual attention model for adapting images on small displays. ACM Multimedia Systems Journal, 9(4):353–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen, L.Q., Xie, X., Ma, WY., Zhang, H.J., Zhou, H.Q., and Feng, H.Q. (2002). Dress: A slicing tree based web representation for various display sizes. Technical Report MSR-TR-2002-12, Microsoft Research, Redmond, WA, USA.Google Scholar
  9. Chen, Y., Xie, X., Ma, W.Y., and Zhang, H.J. (2005). Adapting web pages for small-screen devices. IEEE Internet Computing, 9(1):50–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Christopoulos, C., Skodras, A., and Ebrahimi, T. (2000). The jpeg2000 still image coding system: an overview. IEEE Trans. on Consumer Electronics, 46(4):1103–1127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cohoon, J.P. and Paris, W.D. (1987). Genetic placement. IEEE Trans. on Computer-Aided Design, 6(6): 956–964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Desimone, R. and Duncan, J. (1995). Neural mechanisms of selective visual attention. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 18:193–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fan, X., Xie, X., Ma, WY., Zhang, H.J., and Zhou, H.Q. (2003a). Visual attention based image browsing on mobile devices. In ICME’ 03 Proc. Vol. 1, pages 53–56, Baltimore, MD, USA.Google Scholar
  14. Fan, X., Xie, X., Zhou, H.Q., and Ma, W.Y (2003b). Looking into video frames on small displays. In ACM multimedia’ 03 Proc., pages 247–250, Berkeley, CA, USA.Google Scholar
  15. Fox, A., Gribble, S., Brewer, E.A., and Amir, E. (1996). Adapting to network and client variability via on-demand dynamic distillation. In Proc. of 7th Int. Conf. on Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems, pages 160–170, Cambridge, USA.Google Scholar
  16. Fucks, M. (2000). An evolutionary approach to support web page design. In Proc. of 2000 Congress on Evolutionary Computation, pages 1312–1319, Piscataway, USA.Google Scholar
  17. Gonzalez, J., Rojas, I., Pomares, H., Salmeron, M., and Merelo, J.J. (2002). Web newspaper layout optimization using simulated annealing. IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics-Part B; Cybernetics, 32(5): 686–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gu, X.D., Chen, J.L., Ma, W.Y, and Chen, G.L. (2000). Visual based content understanding towards web adaptation. In Proc. of 2nd Intl. Conf. on Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web Based Systems, pages 164–173, Malaga, Spain.Google Scholar
  19. Han, R., Bhagwat, P., Lamaire, R., Mummert, T., Perret, V., and Rubas, J. (1998). Dynamic adaptation in an image transcoding proxy for mobile web access. IEEE Personal Communications, 5(6):8–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Itti, L. and Koch, C. (2001). Computational modeling of visual attention. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2(3):194–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liu, H., Xie, X., Ma, W.Y., and Zhang, H.J. (2003). Automatic browsing of large pictures on mobile devices. In ACM multimedia’ 03 Proc., pages 148–155, Berkeley, CA, USA.Google Scholar
  22. Ma, W.Y, Shen, B., and Brassil, J. (2001). Content services network: the architecture and protocols. In WCW’ 01 Proc., pages 83–101, Boston, USA.Google Scholar
  23. Ma, WY., Xie, X., Yuan, C., Chen, Y, Zhang, Z., and Zhang, H.J. (2003). Enabling multimedia adaptation services in content delivery networks. In Proc. of 3rd International Workshop on Intelligent Multimedia Computing and Networking, pages 1321–1324, Cary, North Carolina, USA.Google Scholar
  24. Ma, Y.F., Lu, L., Zhang, H.J., and Li, M.J. (2002). A user attention model for video summarization. In ACM multimedia’ 02 Proc., pages 533–542, Juan-les-Pins, France.Google Scholar
  25. Ma, Y.F. and Zhang, H.J. (2003). Contrast-based image attention analysis by using fuzzy growing. In ACM multimedia’ 03 Proc., pages 374–381, Berkeley, CA, USA.Google Scholar
  26. Miao, Z. and Ortega, A. (2002). Scalable proxy caching of video under storage constraints. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 20(7):1315–1327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Milic-Frayling, N. and Sommerer, R. (2002). Smartview: flexible viewing of web page contents. In WWW’ 02 Proc., Honolulu, USA.Google Scholar
  28. Mohan, R., Smith, J.R., and Li, C.S. (1999). Adapting multimedia internet content for universal access. IEEE Trans. on Multimedia, 1(1):104–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rejaie, R., Handley, M., Yu, H., and Estrin, D. (1999). Proxy caching mechanism for multimedia playback streams in the internet. In Proc. of the 4th International Web Caching Workshop, San Diego, CA, USA.Google Scholar
  30. Sarkar, M. and Brown, M.H. (1994). Graphical fisheye views. Communications of the ACM, 37(12): 73–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sen, S., Rexford, J., and Towsley, D. (1999). Proxy prefix caching for multimedia streams. In Infocom’ 99 Proc., pages 1310–1319, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  32. Shimoga, K.B. (2002). Region of interest based video image transcoding for heterogeneous client displays. In Proc. of 12th International Packet Video Workshop, Pittsburgh, USA.Google Scholar
  33. Smith, J.R., Mohan, R., and Li, C.S. (1998). Content-based transcoding of images in the internet. In ICIP’ 98 Proc., Vol. 3, pages 7–11, Chicago, USA.Google Scholar
  34. Suh, B., Ling, H., Bederson, B.B., and Jacobs, D.W. (2003). Automatic thumbnail cropping and its effectiveness. In UIST’ 03 Proc., pages 95–104, Vancouver, Canada.Google Scholar
  35. Sun, X., Foote, J., Kimber, D., and Manjunath, B.S. (2001). Panoramic video capturing and compressed domain virtual camera control. In ACM multimedia’ 01 Proc., pages 329–347, Ottawa, Canada.Google Scholar
  36. Wobbrock, O.J., Forlizzi, J., Hudson, S.E., and Myers, B.A. (2002). Webthumb: interaction techniques for small-screen browsers. In UIST’ 02 Proc., pages 205–208, Paris, France.Google Scholar
  37. Zhang, Z.L., Wang, Y., Du, D.H.C., and Su, D. (2000). Video staging: a proxy-server-based approach to end-to-end video delivery over wide-area networks. IEEE Trans. on Networking, 8(4):429–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xing Xie
    • 1
  • Wei-Ying Ma
    • 1
  1. 1.Microsoft Research AsiaChina

Personalised recommendations