Benzoate Hydroxylation

A measure of oxidative stress in divers
  • Gernot Gronow
  • Wataru Kähler
  • Andreas Koch
  • Norbert Klause
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 566)


Hyperoxia may facilitate the formation of reactive oxygen species. Recent experiments indicated signs of oxidative stress after 3.5 h hyperoxic diving. We analyzed in the urine of healthy, 100% O2-breathing male volunteers before and after 45 min sea-water diving (170 kPa) or 30 min resting at 280 kPa in a pressure chamber (HBO) for sub-fractions of hydroxybenzoate (HB), monohydroxybenzoate (MHB), and of dihydroxybenzoate (DHB). Measurements were performed by HPLC and electrochemical or UV-detection. Additionally, urinary concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive sub-stances (TBARS) and of creatinine (CREA) were analyzed by standard colorimetric assays. During HBO treatment, TBARS, DHB, 2,4-DHB, and 3,4-DHB increased significantly. MHB and CREA did not change. 2,4- and 3,4-DHB-alterations correlated with changes in TBARS. Diving induced urine dilution and stimulated oxygen consumption. Urinary TBARS and HB rose significantly higher during diving at 170 kPa than during HBO at 280 kPa. A different pattern in urinary sub-fractions of DHB could be observed in divers: 2,6 > 2,3 > 2,5 > 3,4. Changes in 2,6- and 2,5-DHB correlated significantly with alterations in TBARS. 2,6-DHB probably indicated renal oxidant stress similar to previously described animal experiments. It is concluded that analyzing urinary HB may provide a sensitive measure to quantify and qualify oxidant stress in divers.


Hyperbaric Oxygenation Open Column Black Column Renal Oxidant Stress Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gernot Gronow
  • Wataru Kähler
  • Andreas Koch
  • Norbert Klause

There are no affiliations available

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