E-training or E-learning?
Many E-training environments and processes are based on participatory learning models in which participants share their understandings and aim to develop new insights into their workplace knowledge through discussion, questioning, mentoring and personal reflection. Knowledge production is assumed to occur through the cumulative effect of these actions. However, equally likely outcomes include the sharing of ignorance or the development of erroneous understandings. Cognitive and social views of learning posit, however, that humans learn by thinking (not just by interacting), and that unless this is explicitly taken into account in developing training programs, optimal learning outcomes may not be achieved. This paper examines the importance of incorporating cognitive and social-learning perspectives in E-training environments in order to maximise the potential for optimal learning to occur, and provides suggestions for a synthesis of participatory and cognitive models.
Key wordslearning models cognition collaborative learning
- Barnett, R. (1999). Learning to work and working to learn. In D. G. Boud (Ed.), Understanding learning at work. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Guzdial, M., & Kehoe, C. (1998). Apprenticeship-based learning environments: A principled approach to providing software-realized scaffolding through hypermedia. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 9(3/4), 289–336.Google Scholar
- Knowles, M. S. (1980). The modern practice of adult education: From pedagogy to andragogy (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge Books.Google Scholar
- Lally, V., & De Latt, M. (2002, Jan 7–11). Cracking the code; Learning to collaborate and collaborating to learn in a networked environment. Paper presented at the CSCL conference on Foundations for a CSCL community, Boulder, CO.Google Scholar
- Nicholson, P. S., & White, G. (2000, September 5). Rich environments for active learning. Paper presented at the Australian Institute for Training and Development seminar on Adult Learning, Melbourne.Google Scholar
- Nicholson, P. S., & White, G. (2001). Teaching for Quality Learning Online: A layered Design Model for Higher-order Thinking. In D. Watson & J. Andersen (Eds.), Networking the Learner: Computers in Education, IFIP World Conference on Computers in Education, WCCE 2001 (pp. 49–58). Dordrecht: NL: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
- Revans, R. W. (1979). The Nature of Action Learning. Management Education and Development, 10(1).Google Scholar
- Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in Society. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Wu, A., Farrell, R., & Singley, M. K. (2002, Jan 7–11). Scaffolding group learning in a collaborative environment. Paper presented at the Computer-supported Collaborative Learning conference on Foundations for a CSCL community, Boulder, CO.Google Scholar
- Zuboff, S. (1988). In the age of the smart machine: the future of work and power. New York: Basic BooksGoogle Scholar