Sampling Strategies: Fundamentals

Part of the Springer Series on Environmental Management book series (SSEM)


Line Transect Adaptive Sampling Resource Selection Aerial Survey Double Sampling 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alldredge, J.R., D.L. Thomas, and L. McDonald. 1998. Survey and comparison of methods for study of resource selection. J. Ag. Biol. Environ. Stat. 3(3):237–253.Google Scholar
  2. Alpizar-Jara, R., and K.H. Pollock. 1996. A combination line transect and capture re-capture sampling model for multiple observers in aerial surveys. J. Environ. Enviorn. Stat. 3:311–327.Google Scholar
  3. Anthony, R.M., and R.A. Stehn. 1994. Navigating aerial transects with a laptop computer map. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 22:674–676.Google Scholar
  4. Beavers, S.C., and F.L. Ramsey. 1998. Detectability analysis in transect surveys. J. Wildl. Manage. 62(3):948–957.Google Scholar
  5. Bookhout, T.A. (ed.). 1994. Research and Management Techniques for Wildlife and Habitats, 5th ed. Wildlife Society, Bethesda, MD.Google Scholar
  6. Borgman, L.E., M. Taheri, and R. Hagan. 1984. Three-dimensional, frequency-domain simulations of geologic variables. In G. Verly, M. David, A.G. Journel, and A. Marechal (eds.). Geostatistics for Natural Resources Characterization, Part I. Reidel, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  7. Borgman, L.E., C.D. Miler, S.R. Signerini, and R.C. Faucette. 1994. Stochastic interpolation as a means to estimate oceanic fields. Atmosphere-Ocean. 32(2):395–419.Google Scholar
  8. Brownie, C., J.E. Hines, J.D. Nichols, K.H. Pollock, and J.B. Hestbeck. 1993. Capture-recapture studies for multiple strata including non-Markovian transitions. Biometrics 49:1173–1187.Google Scholar
  9. Buckland, S.T. 1987. On the variable circular plot method of estimating animal density. Bometrics 43:363–384.Google Scholar
  10. Buckland, S.T., D.R. Anderson, K.P. Burnham, and J.L. Laake. 1993. Distance Sampling: Estimating Abundance of Biological Populations. Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  11. Burnham, K.P. 1993. A theory for combined analysis of ring recovery and recapture data. In J.D. Lebreton, and P.M. North (eds.). Marked Individuals in the Study of Bird Population, pp. 199–214. Birkhäuser-Verlag, Basel, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  12. Burnham, K.P., and D.R. Anderson. 1998. Model Selection and Inference: A Practical Information-Theoretic Approach. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Burnham, K.P., and W.S. Overton. 1978. Estimation of the size of a closed population when capture probabilities vary among animals. Bometrika 65:625–633.Google Scholar
  14. Burnham, K.P., D.R. Anderson, and J.L. Laake. 1980. Estimation of density from line transect sampling of biological populations. Wildl. Monograph 72:1–202.Google Scholar
  15. Byth, K. 1982. On robust distance-based intensity estimators. Biometrics 38:127–135.Google Scholar
  16. Carothers. A.D. 1973. The effects of unequal catchability on Jolly-Seber estimates. Biometrics 29: 79–100.Google Scholar
  17. Canfield, R.H. 1941. Application of the line intercept method in sampling range vegetation. J. Forestry 39:388–394.Google Scholar
  18. Caughley, G. 1977. Sampling in aerial survey. J. Wildl. Manage. 41:605–615.Google Scholar
  19. Caughley, G., and D. Grice. 1982. A correction factor for counting emus from the air and its application to counts in western Australia. Aust. Wildl. Res. 9:253–259.Google Scholar
  20. Chao, A. 1987. Estimating the population size for capture-recapture data with unequal catchability. Bometrics 43:783–791.Google Scholar
  21. —. 1988. Estimating animal abundance with capture frequency data. J. Wildl. Manage. 52: 295–300.Google Scholar
  22. —. 1989. Estimating population size for sparse data in capture-recapture experiments. Biometrics 45:427–438.Google Scholar
  23. Cochran, W.G. 1977. Sampling Techniques, 3d ed. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  24. Conroy, M.J., J.R. Goldsberry, J.E. Hines, and D.B. Stotts. 1988. Evaluation of aerial transect surveys for wintering American black ducks. J. Wildl. Manage. 52:694–703.Google Scholar
  25. Cook, R.D., and J.O. Jacobson. 1979. A design for estimating visibility bias in aerial surveys. Biometrics 35:735–742.Google Scholar
  26. Cressie, N.A.C. 1991. Statistics for Spatial Data. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York.Google Scholar
  27. Darroch, J.N. 1958. The multiple recapture census: I. Estimation of a closed population. Biometrika 45:343–359.Google Scholar
  28. Dell, R.R., and J.L. Clutter. 1972. Ranked set sampling theory with order statistics background. Biometrics 28:545–555.Google Scholar
  29. Deutsch, C.V., and A.G. Journel. 1992. GSLIB Geostatistical Software Library and User’s Guide, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  30. Diggle, P.J. 1983. Statistical Analysis of Spatial Point Patterns. Academic Pr., London.Google Scholar
  31. Drummer, T.D. 1991. SIZETRAN: Analysis of size-biased line transect data. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 19(1): 117–118.Google Scholar
  32. Drummer, T.D., and L.L. McDonald. 1987. Size bias in line transect sampling. Biometrics 43:13–21.Google Scholar
  33. Eberhardt, L.L. 1978. Transect methods for populations studies. J. Wildl. Manage. 42:1–31.Google Scholar
  34. —. 1990. Using radio-telemetry for mark-recapture studies with edge effects. J. Appl. Ecol. 27:259–271.Google Scholar
  35. Eberhardt, L.L., and M.A. Simmons. 1987. Calibrating population indices by double sampling. J. Wildl. Manage. 51:665–675.Google Scholar
  36. Erickson, W.P., T.L. McDonald, and R. Skinner. 1998. Habitat selection using GIS data: A case study. J. Ag. Biol. Environ. Stat. 3(3):296–310.Google Scholar
  37. Flowy, T.J., L.D. Mech, and M.E. Nelson. 1979. An improved method of censusing deer in deciduous-coniferous forests. J. Wildl. Manage. 43:258–261.Google Scholar
  38. Gaillard, J.M. 1988. Contribution a la Dynamique des Populations de Grands Mammiferes: l’Exemple du Chevreuil (Capreolus capreolus). Dissertation. Universite Lyon I, Villeurbanne, France.Google Scholar
  39. Gasaway, W.C., S.D. DuBois, D.J. Reed, and S.J. Harbo. 1986. Estimating moose population parameters from aerial surveys. Institute of Arctic Biology, Biological Papers of the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK 99775, No. 22.Google Scholar
  40. Gilbert, R.O. 1987. Statistical Methods for Environmental Pollution Monitoring. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  41. Gilbert, R.O., and J.C. Simpson. 1992. Statistical Methods for Evaluating the Attainment of Cleanup Standards. Vol. 3, Reference-Based Standards for Soils and Solid Media. Prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Battelle Memorial Institute, Richland, WA, for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under a Related Services Agreement with U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC. PNL-7409 Vol. 3, Rev. 1/UC-600.Google Scholar
  42. Graham, A., and R. Bell. 1969. Factors influencing the countability of animals. East African Ag. For. J. 34:38–43.Google Scholar
  43. Grosenbaugh, L.R. 1952. Plotless timber estimates—new, fast, easy. J. For. 50:532–537.Google Scholar
  44. Green, R.H. 1979. Sampling Design and Statistical Methods for Environmental Biologists. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  45. Guenzel, R.J. 1997. Estimating pronghorn abundance using aerial line transect sampling. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, WY.Google Scholar
  46. Hornocker, M.G. 1970. An analysis of mountain lion predation upon mule deer and elk in the Idaho Primitive Area. Wildl. Monogr. 21.Google Scholar
  47. Horvitz, G.G., and D.J. Thompson. 1952. A generalization of sampling without replacement from a finite universe. J. American Stat. Assoc. 47: 663–685.Google Scholar
  48. Huggins, R.M. 1989. On the statistical analysis of capture experiments. Biometrika 76:133–140.Google Scholar
  49. —. 1991. Some practical aspects of a conditional likelihood approach to capture experiments. Biometrics 47:725–732.Google Scholar
  50. Hunt, G. 1995. A Pilot Golden Eagle Population Study in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California. Prepared by Predatory Bird Research Group, Univ. California, Santa Cruz, CA, for National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO. Rpt. TP-441-7821.Google Scholar
  51. Hurlbert, S.H. 1984. Pseudoreplication and the design of ecological field experiments. Ecol. Monogr. 54:187–211.Google Scholar
  52. Isaaks, E.H., and R.M. Srivastava. 1989. An Introduction to Applied Geostatistics, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  53. Johnson, D.H. 1980. The comparison of usage and availability measurements for evaluating resource preference. Ecology 61: 65–71.Google Scholar
  54. Johnson, D.H. (ed.). 1998. Special Issue: Resource Selection Using Data from Geographical Information Systems (GIS). J. Ag. Biol. Environ. Stat. 3(3).Google Scholar
  55. Johnson, B.K., J. Rogers, A. Chu, P. Flyer, and R. Dorrier. 1989. Methods for Evaluating the Attainment of Cleanup Standards. Vol. 1, Soils and Solid Media. Prepared by WESTAT Research, Inc., Rockville, MD, for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. EPA 230/02-89-042.Google Scholar
  56. Johnson, B.K., F.G. Lindzey, and R.J. Guenzel. 1991. Use of aerial line transect surveys to estimate pronghorn populations in Wyoming. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 19:315–321.Google Scholar
  57. Journel, A.G., and C.J. Huijbregts. 1978. Mining Geostatistics. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  58. Kaiser, L. 1983. Unbiased estimation in line-intercept sampling. Biometrics 39:965–976.Google Scholar
  59. Kendall, W.L. 1999. Robustness of closed capture-recapture methods to violations of the closure assumption. Ecology 80:2517–2525.Google Scholar
  60. Kendall, W.L., and R. Kerr. Estimating temporary emigration using Pollock’s robust design when the closure assumption is violated. Biometrics (in review).Google Scholar
  61. Kendall, W.L., and K.H. Pollock. 1992. The robust design in capture-recapture studies: A review and evaluation by Monte Carlo simulation. In D.R. McCullough, and R.H. Barrett (eds.). Wildlife 2001: Populations, pp. 31–43. Elsevier, London.Google Scholar
  62. Kendall, W.L., J.D. Nichols, and J.E. Hines, 1997. Estimating temporary emigration using capturerecapture data with Pollock’s robust design. Ecology 78:563–578.Google Scholar
  63. Kern, J.W. 1997. Data analysis techniques for point prediction and estimation of spatial means. Tech. Res. Work Order Dan Goodman, Dept. of Biology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT. Contract 290801.Google Scholar
  64. Krebs, C.J. 1989. Ecological Methodology. Harper and Row, New York.Google Scholar
  65. Krige, D.G. 1951. A Statistical Approach to Some Mine Valuation and Allied Problems at the Witwaterstrand. Unpublished masters thesis, University of Witwaterstrand.Google Scholar
  66. Laake, J.L., K.P. Burnham, and D.R. Anderson. 1979. User’s Manual for Program TRANSECT. Utah State Univ. Press, Logan, Utah. 26 pp.Google Scholar
  67. Laake, J.L., S.T. Buckland, D.R. Anderson, and K.P. Burnham. 1993. DISTANCE User’s Guide. Version 2.0. Colorado Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO.Google Scholar
  68. Lancia, R.A., J.D. Nichols, and K.H. Pollock. 1994. Estimating the number of animals in wildlife populations. In T.A. Bookhout (ed.). Research and Management Techniques for Wildlife and Habitats, pp. 215–253. Wildlife Society, Bethesda, MD.Google Scholar
  69. Lebreton, J.-D., K.P. Burnham, J. Clobert, and D.R. Anderson. 1992. Modeling survival and testing biolgical hypotheses using marked animals: A unified approach with case studies. Ecol. Monogr. 62:67–118.Google Scholar
  70. Lee, S.-M., and A. Chao. 1994. Estimating population size via sample coverage for closed capturerecapture models. Biometrics 50:88–97.Google Scholar
  71. Lincoln, F.C. 1930. Calculating waterfowl abundance on the basis of banding returns. U.S. Dept. Agric. Circ. 118:1–4.Google Scholar
  72. Ludwig, J.A., and J.F. Reynolds. 1988. Statistical Ecology. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  73. Lucas, H.A., and G.A.F. Seber. 1977. Estimating coverage and particle density using the line intercept method. Biometrika 64:618–622.Google Scholar
  74. Manly, B.F.J. 1991. Randomization and Monte Carlo Methods in Biology. Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  75. Manly, B.F.J., L. McDonald, and D. Thomas. 1993. Resource Selection by Animals: Statistical Design and Analysis for Field Studies. Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  76. Manly, B.F.J., L. McDonald, and G.W. Garner. 1996. Maximum likelihood estimation for the double-count method with independent observers. J. Ag. Biol. Environ. Stat. 1(2):170–189.Google Scholar
  77. McCullagh, P., and J.A. Nelder. 1983. Generalized linear models. Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  78. Matheron, G. 1962. Traite de Geostatistique Appliquee, Tome I. Memoires du Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, No. 14. Editions Technip, Paris.Google Scholar
  79. Matheron, G. 1971. The theory of regionized variables and its applications. Cahiers du Centre de Morphologie Mathematique, No. 5. Fontainebleau, France.Google Scholar
  80. McDonald, L.L. 1980. Line-intercept sampling for attributes other than cover and density. J. Wildl. Manage. 44:530–533.Google Scholar
  81. McDonald, L.L. 1991. Workshop Notes on Statistics for Field Ecology. Western Ecosystems Technology, Inc., Cheyenne, WY.Google Scholar
  82. McDonald, L.L., H.B. Harvey, F.J. Mauer, and A.W. Brackney. 1990. Design of aerial surveys for Dall sheep in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. 7th Biennial Northern Wild Sheep and Goat Symposium. May 14–17, 1990, Clarkston, Washington.Google Scholar
  83. McDonald, L.L., M.A. Mullen, and D.P. Young, Jr. 1993. Analysis of Data Collected for an Evaluation of the Effects of Timber-Wildlife Management on Nongame Birds at the Ashland Wildlife Research Area. Final report prepared Missouri Department of Conservation, Fish and Wildlife Research Center, Columbia, MO.Google Scholar
  84. McDonald, L.L., W.P. Erickson, and M.D. Strickland. 1995. Survey design, statistical analysis, and basis for statistical inferences in Coastal Habitat Injury Assessment: Exxon Valdez Oil Spill, In P.G. Wells, J.N. Buther, and J.S. Hughes, (eds.). Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: Fate and Effects in Alaskan Waters. ASTM STP 1219. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA.Google Scholar
  85. Mendenhall, W., L. Ott, and R.L. Scheaffer. 1971. Elementary survey sampling. Duxbury Pr., Belmont, Ca.Google Scholar
  86. Menkins, G.E., Jr., and S.H. Anderson. 1988. Estimation of small-mammal population size. Ecology 69:1952–1959.Google Scholar
  87. Miller, S.D., G.C. White, R.A. Sellers, H.V. Reynolds, J.W. Schoen, K. Titus, V.G. Barnes, R.B. Smith, R.R. Nelson, W.B. Ballard, and C.C. Schwartz. 1997. Brown and black bear density estimation in Alsaka using radiotelemetry and replicated mark-resight techniques. Wildl. Monogr. 133.Google Scholar
  88. Muttlak, H.A., and L.L. McDonald. 1992. Ranked set sampling and the line intercept method: A more efficient procedure. Biomet. J. 34:329–346.Google Scholar
  89. Nichols, J.D., and K.H. Pollack. 1983. Estimation methodology in contemporary small mammal capture-recapture studies. J. Mammal. 64:253–260.Google Scholar
  90. —. 1990. Separate estimation of recruitment from immigration versus in situ reproduction using Pollock’s robust design. Ecology 71:21–27.Google Scholar
  91. Otis, D.L., K.P. Burnham, G.C. White, and D.R. Anderson. 1978. Statistical inference from capture data on closed animal populations. Wildl. Monogr. 62.Google Scholar
  92. Otis, D.L., L.L. McDonald, and M. Evans. 1993. Parameter estimation in encounter sampling surveys. J. Wildl. Manage. 57:543–548.Google Scholar
  93. Overton, W.S., D. White, and D.L. Stevens. 1991. Design Report for EMAP: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program. Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR. EPA/600/3-91/053.Google Scholar
  94. Packard, J.M., R.C. Summers, and L.B. Barnes. 1985. Variation of visibility bias during aerial surveys of manatees. J. Wildl. Manage. 49: 347–351.Google Scholar
  95. Patil, G.P., A.K. Sinha, and C. Taillie. 1993. Relative precision of ranked set sampling: A comparison with the regression estimator. EnvironMetrics. 4:399–412.Google Scholar
  96. Petersen, C.G.J. 1896. The yearly immigration of young plaice into the Limfjord from the German Sea. Rep. Dan. Biol. St. (1895) 6:5–84.Google Scholar
  97. Pollock, K.H. 1974. The Assumption of Equal Catchability of Animals in Tag-Recapture Experiments. Ph.D. Thesis, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY.Google Scholar
  98. —. 1982. A capture-recapture design robust to unequal probability of capture. J. Wildl. Manage. 46:752–757.Google Scholar
  99. —. 1991. Modeling capture, recapture, and removal statistics for estimation of demographic parameters for fish and wildllife populations: past, present, and future. J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 86:225–238.Google Scholar
  100. Pollock, K.H., and W.L. Kendall. 1987. Visibility bias in aerial surveys: A review of estimation procedures. J. Wildl. Manage. 51:502–520.Google Scholar
  101. Pollock, K.H., and M.C. Otto. 1983. Robust estimation of population size in closed animal populations from capture-recapture experiments. Biometrics 39:1035–1049.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Pollock, K.H., J.D. Nichols, C. Brownie, and J.E. Hines. 1990. Statistical inference for capturerecapture experiments. Wildl. Monogr. 107.Google Scholar
  103. Quang, P.X., and E.F. Becker. 1996. Line transect sampling under varying conditions with application to aerial surveys. Ecology 77(4):1297–1302.Google Scholar
  104. —. 1997. Combining line transect and double count sampling techniques for aerial surveys. J. Ag. Biol. Environ. Stat. 2(2):230–242.Google Scholar
  105. Quang, P.X. 1989. A nonparametric approach to size-biased line transect sampling. Draft Report. Dept. Math. Sci., Univ. Alaska, Fairbanks AK 99775.Google Scholar
  106. Quang, P.X., and R.B. Lanctot. 1989. A line transect model for aerial surveys [Draft report]. Department of Mathmetics and Science, Univ. Alaska, Fairbanks, AK.Google Scholar
  107. Ramsey, F.L., and J.M. Scott. 1979. Estimating population densities from variable circular plot surveys. In R.M. Cormack, G.P. Patil and D.S. Robson (eds.). Sampling Biological Populations, pp. 155–181. International Co-operative Publishing House, Fairland, MD.Google Scholar
  108. Ratti, J.T., and E.O. Garton. 1994. Research and experimental design. In T.A. Bookhout (ed.). Research and Management Techniques for Wildlife and Habitats, pp. 1–23. Wildlife Society, Bethesda, MD.Google Scholar
  109. Reed, D.J., L.L. McDonald, and J.R. Gilbert. 1989. Variance of the product of estimates. Draft report. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, 1300 College Road, Fairbanks, AK 99701.Google Scholar
  110. Reynolds, R.T., J.M. Scott, and R.A. Nussbaum. 1980. A variable circular-plot method for estimating bird numbers. Condor 82(3):309–313.Google Scholar
  111. Rexstad, E., and K. Burnham. 1991. Users Guide for Interactive Program CAPTURE, Abundance Estimation for Closed Populations. Colorado Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Fort Collins, CO.Google Scholar
  112. Samuel,.D., E.O. Garton, M.W. Schlegel, and R.G. Carson. 1987. Visibility bias during aerial surveys of elk in northcentral Idaho. J. Wildl. Manage. 51:622–630.Google Scholar
  113. Scheaffer, R.L., W. Mendenhall, and L. Ott. 1990. Elementary Survey Sampling. PWS-Kent Publishing, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  114. Schwarz, C.J., and Stobo, W.T. 1997. Estimating temporary migration using the robust design. Biometrics 53:178–194.Google Scholar
  115. Seber, G.A.F. 1982. The Estimation of Animal Abundance and Related Parameters, 2d ed. Griffin, London.Google Scholar
  116. Skalski, J.R., M.A. Simmons, and D.S. Robson. 1984. The use of removal sampling in comparative censuses. Ecology 65:1006–1015.Google Scholar
  117. Skinner, R., W. Erickson, G. Minick, and L.L. McDonald. September 1997. Estimating Moose Populations and Trends Using Line Transect Sampling. Technical Report Prepared for the USFWS, Innoko National Wildlife Refuge, McGrath, AK.Google Scholar
  118. Smith, W. 1979. An oil spill sampling strategy. In R.M. Cormack, G.P. Patil, and D.S. Robson (eds.). Sampling Biological Populations, pp. 355–363. International Co-operative Publishing House, Fairland, MD.Google Scholar
  119. Southwell, C. 1994. Evaluation of walked line transect counts for estimating macropod density. J. Wildl. Manage. 58:348–356.Google Scholar
  120. Stokes, S.L. 1986. Ranked set sampling. In S. Kotz, and N.L. Johnson (eds.), C.B. Read (ex. ed.). Encyclopedia of Statistical Sciences, vol. 7, pp. 585–588. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  121. Strickland, M.D., L. McDonald, J.W. Kern, T. Spraker, and A. Loranger. 1994. Analysis of 1992 Dall’s sheep and mountain goat survey data, Kenai National Wildlife Refuge. Bienn. Symp. Northern Wild Sheep and Mountain Goat Council.Google Scholar
  122. Strickland, M.D., W.P. Erickson, and L.L. McDonald. 1996. Avian Monitoring Studies: Buffalo Ridge Wind Resource Area, Minnesota. Prepared for Northern States Power, Minneapolis, MN.Google Scholar
  123. Strickland, M.D., D.P. Young, Jr., G.D. Johnson, W.P. Erickson, and C.E. Derby. 1998. Wildlife monitoring studies for the Sea West Windpower Plant, Carbon County, Wyoming. Proceedings of the National Avian-Wind Power Planning Meeting III. National Wind Coordinating Committee, c/o RESOLVE, Inc. Washington, D.C. pp. 55–69.Google Scholar
  124. Thomas, J.W. (ed.). 1979. Wildlife Habitats in Managed Forests: The Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington. U.S. Forest Service, Ag. Handb. 553.Google Scholar
  125. Thompson, S.K. 1990. Adaptive cluster sampling. Journal of the American Statistical Association 85:1050–1059.Google Scholar
  126. Thompson, S.K. 1992. Sampling. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  127. Thompson, S.K., and G.A.F. Seber. 1996. Adaptive Sampling. Wiley, New York. 265 pp.Google Scholar
  128. White, G.C., D.R. Anderson, K.P. Burnham, and D.L. Otis, 1982. Capture-recapture and Removal Methods for Sampling Closed Populations. Rpt. LA-8787-NERP. Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM.Google Scholar
  129. Wolter, K.M. 1984. Investigation of some estimators of variance for systematic sampling. J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 79:781–790.Google Scholar
  130. Zippen, C. 1958. The removal method of population estimation. J. Wildl. Manage. 22:82–90.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 2001

Personalised recommendations