Biliary Tract



Bile Duct Common Bile Duct Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Biliary Tract Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Trotman BW. Pigment gallstone disease. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 1991;20:111–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Charcot JM. Leçons sur les maladies du foie, des voies biliaires et des reins: faites a la faculté de médecine de paris. Paris: Progrè Médical; 1877:380.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fan ST, Lai EC, Mok FP, et al. Early treatment of acute biliary pancreatitis by endoscopic papillotomy. N Engl J Med 1993; 328:228–232.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Friedman GD. Natural history of asymptomatic and symptomatic gallstones. Am J Surg 1993;165:399–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Harris HW. Biliary system. In: Norton JA, Bollinger RR, Chang AE, et al., eds. Surgery: Basic Science and Clinical Evidence. New York: Springer-Verlag; 2001:566.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Werbel GB, Nahrwold DL, Joehl RJ, et al. Percutaneous cholecystostomy in the diagnosis and treatment of acute cholecystitis in the high-risk patient. Arch Surg 1989;124: 782–786.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Strasberg SM, Hertl M, Soper NJ. An analysis of the problem of biliary injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. J Am Coll Surg 1995;180:101–125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ahrendt SA, Pitt HA, Kalloo AN, et al. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: resect, dilate, or transplant? Ann Surg 1998;227:412–423.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stain SC, Incarbone R, Guthrie CR, et al. Surgical treatment of recurrent pyogenic cholangitis. Arch Surg 1995;130:527–533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Levin B. Gallbladder carcinoma. Ann Oncol 1999;10(Suppl 4):129–130.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Carriaga MT, Henson DE. Liver, gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts, and pancreas. Cancer 1995;75(1 Suppl):171–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nakeeb A, Pitt HA, Sohn TA, et al. Cholangiocarcinoma. A spectrum of intrahepatic, perihilar, and distal tumors. Ann Surg 1996;224:463–475.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Urego M, Flickinger JC, Carr BI. Radiotherapy and multimodality management of cholangiocarcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1999;44:121–126.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Selected Readings Anatomy and Physiology

  1. Admirand WH, Small DM. The physicochemical basis of cholesterol gallstone formation in man. J Clin Invest 1968;47:1043–1052.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Boyden EA. The anatomy of the choledochoduodenal junction in man. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1957;104:641–652.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Csendes A, Burdiles P, Maluenda F, et al. Simultaneous bacteriologic assessment of bile from gallbladder and common bile duct in control subjects and patients with gallstones and common duct stones. Arch Surg 1996;131:389–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Klein AS, Lillemoe KD, Yeo CJ, et al. Liver, biliary tract and pancreas. In: O’Leary JP, ed. The Physiologic Basis of Surgery. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1993:255–292.Google Scholar
  5. Lindner HH. Embryology and anatomy of the biliary tree. In: Way LW, Pellegrini CA, eds. Surgery of the Gallbladder and Bile Ducts. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1987:3–15.Google Scholar
  6. Smadja C, Blumgart LH. The biliary tract and the anatomy of biliary exposure. In: Blumgart LH, ed. Surgery of the Liver and Biliary Tract. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1994;11-24.Google Scholar
  7. Tierney S, Pitt HA, Lillemoe KD. Physiology and pathophysiology of gallbladder motility. Surg Clin North Am 1993;73:1267–1290.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Biliary Tract Imaging

  1. Aronchick CA, Ritchie WG, Kaplan SM, et al. Sincalide-aided ultrasonography of the common bile duct as a predictor of biliary obstruction determined by ERCP and biliary manometry. Gastrointest Endosc 1990;36:467–471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Barish MA, Soto JA. MR cholangiopancreatography: techniques and clinical applications. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1997;169:1295–1303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Blankenberg F, Wirth R, Jeffrey RB Jr, et al. Computed tomography as an adjunct to ultrasound in the diagnosis of acute acalculous cholecystitis. Gastrointest Radiol 1991;16:149–153.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cooperberg PL, Burhenne HJ. Real-time ultrasonography. Diagnostic technique of choice in calculous gallbladder disease. N Engl J Med 1980;302:1277–1279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Magnuson TH, Bender JS, Duncan MD, et al. Utility of magnetic resonance cholangiography in the evaluation of biliary obstruction. J Am Coll Surg 1999;189:63–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ohtani T, Kawai C, Shirai Y, et al. Intraoperative ultrasonography versus cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective comparative study. J Am Coll Surg 1997;185: 274–282.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Parulekar SG, Hillier SA, Adell JA, et al. Color Doppler sonography of the gallbladder wall. J Ultrasound Med 1995;14(Suppl):S21.Google Scholar
  8. Paulson EK, Kliewer MA, Hertzberg BS, et al. Diagnosis of acute cholecystitis with color Doppler sonography: significance of arterial flow in thickened gallbladder wall. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1994;162:1105–1108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Robinson BL, Donohue JH, Gunes S, et al. Selective operative cholangiography. Appropriate management for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Arch Surg 1995;130:625–631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Shaffer EA, Hershfield NB, Logan K, et al. Cholescintigraphic detection of functional obstruction of the sphincter of Oddi. Effect of papillotomy. Gastroenterology 1986;90:728–733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Soto JA, Barish MA, Yucel EK, et al. Magnetic resonance cholangiography: comparison with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Gastroenterology 1996;110:589–597.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Stotland BR, Kochman ML. Diagnostic and therapeutic endosonography: endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration in clinical practice. Gastrointest Endosc 1997;45:329–331.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Suarez CA, Block F, Bernstein D, et al. The role of HIDA/PIPIDA scanning in diagnosing cystic duct obstruction. Ann Surg 1980;191:391–396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Zeman RK, Garra BS. Gallbladder imaging: the state of the art. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 1991;20:127–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Gallstone Disease

  1. Adamek HE, Maier M, Jakobs R, et al. Management of retained bile duct stones: a prospective open trial comparing extracorporeal and intracorporeal lithotripsy. Gastrointest Endosc 1996;44: 40–47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Burhenne HJ. Garland lecture. Percutaneous extraction of retained biliary tract stones: 661 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1980;134: 889–898.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Caprini JA. Biliary stone extraction. Am Surg 1988;54:343–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cetta F. The role of bacteria in pigment gallstone disease. Ann Surg 1991;213:315–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Cotton PB, Kozarek RA, Schapiro RH, et al. Endoscopic laser lithotripsy of large bile duct stones. Gastroenterology 1990; 99:1128–1133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Cuschieri A, Berci G. Laparoscopic treatment of common duct stones. In: Cuschieri A. Laparoscopic Biliary Surgery. 2nd ed. Oxford; Boston: Blackwell Scientific; 1992:155–169.Google Scholar
  7. Freeman ML, Nelson DB, Sherman S, et al. Complications of endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy. N Engl J Med 1996;335:909–918.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Glasgow RE, Visser BC, Harris HW, et al. Changing management of gallstone disease during pregnancy. Surg Endosc 1998;12: 241–246.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ikeda S, Tanaka M, Matsumoto S, et al. Endoscopic sphincterotomy: long-term results in 408 patients with complete follow-up. Endoscopy 1988;20:13–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kiviluoto T, Siren J, Luukkonen P, et al. Randomised trial of laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy for acute and gangrenous cholecystitis. Lancet 1998;351:321–325.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Larson RE, Hodgson JR, Priestley JT. The early and long-term results of 500 consecutive explorations of the common duct. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1966;122:744–750.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Lo CM, Liu CL, Fan ST, et al. Prospective randomized study of early versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis. Ann Surg 1998;227:461–467.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Loperfido S, Angelini G, Benedetti G, et al. Major early complications from diagnostic and therapeutic ERCP: a prospective multicenter study. Gastrointest Endosc 1998;48:1–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Moraca RJ, Lee FT, Ryan JA Jr, et al. Long-term biliary function after reconstruction of major bile duct injuries with hepaticoduodenostomy or hepaticojejunostomy. Arch Surg 2002;137:889–894.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Palmer KR, Hofmann AF. Intraductal mono-octanoin for the direct dissolution of bile duct stones: experience in 343 patients. Gut 1986;27:196–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Perissat J, Huibregtse K, Keane FB, et al. Management of bile duct stones in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Br J Surg 1994;81:799–810.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Proceedings of the NIH Consensus Development Conference on Gallstones and Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy. Bethesda, Maryland, September 14–16, 1992. Am J Surg 1993;165:387–548.Google Scholar
  18. Reisner RM, Cohen JR. Gallstone ileus: a review of 1001 reported cases. Am Surg 1994;60:441–446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Rhodes M, Sussman L. Prospective randomized trial of laparoscopic common bile duct exploration versus post-operative ERCP [abstr]. Gut 1997;40(Suppl 1):A68.Google Scholar
  20. Saharia PC, Zuidema GD, Cameron JL. Primary common duct stones. Ann Surg 1977;185:598–604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Santucci L, Natalini G, Sarpi L, et al. Selective endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and preoperative bile duct stone removal in patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective study. Am J Gastroenterol 1996;91:1326–1330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Schwesinger WH, Sirinek KR, Strodel WE 3rd. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for biliary tract emergencies: state of the art. World J Surg 1999;23:334–342.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Stuart SA, Simpson TI, Alvord LA, et al. Routine intraoperative laparoscopic cholangiography. Am J Surg 1998;176:632–637.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Targarona EM, Ayuso RM, Bordas JM, et al. Randomised trial of endoscopic sphincterotomy with gallbladder left in situ versus open surgery for common bile duct calculi in high-risk patients. Lancet 1996;347:926–929.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Tierney S, Lillemoe KD, Pitt HA. The current management of common duct stones. Adv Surg 1995;28:271–299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Way LW, Admirand WH, Dunphy JE. Management of choledocholithiasis. Ann Surg 1972;176:347–359.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Malignancies of the Biliary Tract

  1. Bartlett DL, Fong Y, Fortner JG, et al. Long-term results after resection for gallbladder cancer. Implications for staging and management. Ann Surg 1996;224:639–646.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bismuth H, Nakache R, Diamond T. Management strategies in resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Ann Surg 1992;215:31–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Burke EC, Jarnagin WR, Hochwald SN, et al. Hilar cholangiocarcinoma: patterns of spread, the importance of hepatic resection for curative operation, and a presurgical clinical staging system. Ann Surg 1998;228:385–394.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Jarnagin WR, Fong Y, DeMatteo RP, et al. Staging, resectability, and outcome in 225 patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Ann Surg 2001;234:507–519.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Klatskin G. Adenocarcinoma of the hepatic duct at its bifurcation within the porta hepatis: an unusual tumor with distinctive clinical and pathological features. Am J Med 1965;38:241–247.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Klempnauer J, Ridder GJ, von Wasielewski R, et al. Resectional surgery of hilar cholangiocarcinoma: a multivariate analysis of prognostic factors. J Clin Oncol 1997;15:947–954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Pitt HA, Dooley WC, Yeo CJ, et al. Malignancies of the biliary tree. Curr Probl Surg 1995;32:1–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Strasberg SM. Resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. HPB Surg 1998;10:415–418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Tsukada K, Hatakeyama K, Kurosaki I, et al. Outcome of radical surgery for carcinoma of the gallbladder according to the TNM stage. Surgery 1996;120:816–821.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Weber SM, DeMatteo RP, Fong Y, et al. Staging laparoscopy in patients with extrahepatic biliary carcinoma. Analysis of 100 patients. Ann Surg 2002;235:392–399.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Sclerosing Cholangitis

  1. Campbell WL, Ferris JV, Holbert BL, et al. Biliary tract carcinoma complicating primary sclerosing cholangitis: evaluation with CT, cholangiography, US, and MR imaging. Radiology 1998;207:41–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Goss JA, Shackleton CR, Farmer DG, et al. Orthotopic liver transplantation for primary sclerosing cholangitis. A 12-year single center experience. Ann Surg 1997;225:472–481.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Graziadei IW, Wiesner RH, Batts KP, et al. Recurrence of primary sclerosing cholangitis following liver transplantation. Hepatology 1999;29:1050–1056.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Lee YM, Kaplan MM. Primary sclerosing cholangitis. N Engl J Med 1995;332:924–933.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Martin FM, Rossi RL, Nugent FW, et al. Surgical aspects of sclerosing cholangitis. Results in 178 patients. Ann Surg 1990;212:551–556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ponsioen CI, Tytgat GN. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: a clinical review. Am J Gastroenterol 1998;93:515–523.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Wiesner RH. Liver transplantation for primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis: predicting outcomes with natural history models. Mayo Clin Proc 1998;73:575–588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Congenital Diseases

  1. Asselah T, Ernst O, Sergent G, et al. Caroli’s disease: a magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography diagnosis. Am J Gastroenterol 1998;93:109–110.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Dagli U, Atalay F, Sasmaz N, et al. Caroli’s disease: 1977–1995 experiences. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1998;10:109–1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Fieber SS, Nance FC. Choledochal cyst and neoplasm: a comprehensive review of 106 cases and presentation of two original cases. Am Surg 1997;63:982–987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Lipsett PA, Segev DL, Colombani PM. Biliary atresia and biliary cysts. Baillieres Clin Gastroenterol 1997;11:619–641.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Miyano T, Yamataka A. Choledochal cysts. Curr Opin Pediatr 1997; 9:283–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Oguchi Y, Okada A, Nakamura T, et al. Histopathologic studies of congenital dilatation of the bile duct as related to an anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary ductal system: clinical and experimental studies. Surgery 1988;103:168–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Stain SC, Guthrie CR, Yellin AE, et al. Choledochal cyst in the adult. Ann Surg 1995;222:128–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Taylor AC, Palmer KR. Caroli’s disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1998;10:105–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Todani T, Watanabe Y, Narusue M, et al. Congenital bile duct cysts: classification, operative procedures, and review of thirty-seven cases including cancer arising from choledochal cyst. Am J Surg 1977;134:263–269.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 2004

Personalised recommendations