Acute Pancreatitis Chronic Pancreatitis Pancreatic Duct Acinar Cell Main Pancreatic Duct 
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    Steer ML, Waxman I, Freedman S. Chronic pancreatitis. N Engl J Med 1995;332:1482–1490.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Sherman S, Lehman GA. ERCP-and endoscopic sphincterotomy-induced pancreatitis. Pancreas 1991;6:350–367.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Bittner R, Block S, Buchler M, et al. Pancreatic abscess and infected pancreatic necrosis. Different local septic complications in acute pancreatitis. Dig Dis Sci 1987;32:1082–1087.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Yeo CJ, Cameron JL. Pancreatic cancer. Curr Probl Surg 1999 Feb;36:59–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Luiten EJ, Hop WC, Lange JF, et al. Controlled clinical trial of selective decontamination for the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis. Ann Surg 1995;222:57–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Pederzoli P, Bassi C, Vesentini S, et al. A randomized multicenter clinical trial of antibiotic prophylaxis of septic complications in acute necrotizing pancreatitis with imipenem. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1993;176:480–483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Sainio V, Kemppainen E, Puolakkainen P, et al. Early antibiotic treatment in acute necrotising pancreatitis. Lancet 1995; 346:663–667.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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    D’Egidio A, Schein M. Percutaneous drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts: a prospective study. World J Surg 1992;16:141–146.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Smits ME, Badiga SM, Rauws EA, et al. Long-term results of pancreatic stents in chronic pancreatitis. Gastrointest Endosc 1995;42:461–467.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Greenlee HB, Prinz RA, Aranha GV. Long-term results of side-to-side pancreaticojejunostomy. World J Surg 1990;14:70–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Ihse I, Borch K, Larsson J. Chronic pancreatitis: results of operations for relief of pain. World J Surg 1990;14:53–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Buchler MW, Friess H, Muller MW, et al. Randomized trial of duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection versus pylorus-preserving Whipple in chronic pancreatitis. Am J Surg 1995;169:65–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Cameron JL. Long-term survival following pancreaticoduodenectomy for adenocarcinoma of the head of the pancreas. Surg Clin North Am 1995;75:939–951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Yeo CJ, Cameron JL, Lillemoe KD, et al. Pancreaticoduodenectomy for cancer of the head of the pancreas. 201 patients. Ann Surg 1995;221:721–733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
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Selected Readings Acute Pancreatitis

  1. Ashley SW, Perez A, Pierce EA, et al. Necrotizing pancreatitis: contemporary analysis of 99 consecutive cases. Ann Surg 2001;234:527–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bassi C, Falconi M, Talamini G, et al. Controlled clinical trial of pefloxacin versus imipenem in severe acute pancreatitis. Gastroenterology 1998;115:1513–1517.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bradley EL 3rd, Allen K. A prospective longitudinal study of observation versus surgical intervention in the management of necrotizing pancreatitis. Am J Surg 1991;161:19–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown A, Baillargeon JD, Hughes MD, et al. Can fluid resuscitation prevent pancreatic necrosis in severe acute pancreatitis? Pancreatology 2002;2:104–107.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Buchler MW, Gloor B, Muller CA, et al. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis: treatment strategy according to the status of infection. Ann Surg 2000;232:619–626.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Folsch UR, Nitsche R, Ludtke R, et al. Early ERCP and papillotomy compared with conservative treatment for acute biliary pancreatitis. The German Study Group on Acute Biliary Pancreatitis. N Engl J Med 1997;336:237–242.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Gerzof SG, Banks PA, Robbins AH, et al. Early diagnosis of pancreatic infection by computed tomography-guided aspiration. Gastroenterology 1987;93:1315–1320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Lee SP, Nicholls JF, Park HZ. Biliary sludge as a cause of acute pancreatitis. N Engl J Med 1992;326:589–593.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. London NJ, Leese T, Lavelle JM, et al. Rapid-bolus contrastenhanced dynamic computed tomography in acute pancreatitis: a prospective study. Br J Surg 1991;78:1452–1456.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. McKay CJ, Imrie CW. Staging of acute pancreatitis. Is it important? Surg Clin North Am 1999;79:733–743.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Ranson JH, Rifkind KM, Roses DF, et al. Prognostic signs and the role of operative management in acute pancreatitis. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1974;139:69–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Steinberg W, Tenner S. Acute pancreatitis. N Engl J Med 1994;330:1198–1210.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Chronic Pancreatitis

  1. Ammann RW, Heitz PU, Kloppel G. Course of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis: a prospective clinicomorphological long-term study. Gastroenterology 1996;111:224–231.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Leung JW, Bowen-Wright M, Aveling W, et al. Coeliac plexus block for pain in pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis. Br J Surg 1983;70:730–732.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Nealon WH, Townsend CM Jr, Thompson JC. Preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients with pancreatic pseudocyst associated with resolving acute and chronic pancreatitis. Ann Surg 1989;209:532–540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Reinhold C. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pancreas in 2001. J Gastrointest Surg 2002;6:133–135.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Sakorafas GH, Tsiotou AG. Proximal pancreatectomy in the surgical management of chronic pancreatitis. J Clin Gastroenterol 2002;34:72–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Sarles H, Adler G, Dani R, et al. The pancreatitis classification of Marseilles-Rome 1988. Scand J Gastroenterol 1989;24:641–642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Sharer N, Schwarz M, Malone G, et al. Mutations of the cystic fibrosis gene in patients with chronic pancreatitis. N Engl J Med 1998;339:645–652.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Witt H, Becker M. Genetics of chronic pancrestitis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2002;34:125–136.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Witzigmann H, Mark D, Uhlmarn D, et al. Quality of life in ohronic pancreatitis: a prospective trial comparing classical Whipple procedure and duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection. J Gastrointest Surg 2002;6:173–180.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar


  1. Adler J, Barkin JS. Management of pseudocysts, inflammatory masses, and pancreatic ascites. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 1990;19:863–871.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Frantzides CT, Ludwig KA, Redlich PN. Laparoscopic management of a pancreatic pseudocyst. J Laparoendosc Surg 1994;4:55–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Spivak H, Galloway JR, Amerson JR, et al. Management of pancreatic pseudocysts. J Am Coll Surg 1998;186:507–511.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Vitas GJ, Sarr MG. Selected management of pancreatic pseudocysts: operative versus expectant management. Surgery 1992;111:123–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Yeo CJ, Bastidas JA, Lynch-Nyhan A, et al. The natural history of pancreatic pseudocysts documented by computed tomography. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1990;170:411–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Pancreatic Tumors

  1. Birk D, Beger HG. Neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and palliative treatment of pancreatic cancer. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2001;3:129–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Brennan MF, Moccia RD, Klimstra D. Management of adenocarcinoma of the body and tail of the pancreas. Ann Surg 1996;223:506–512.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ghaneh P, Kawesha A, Howes N, et al. Adjuvant therapy for pancreatic cancer. World J Surg 1999;23:937–945.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Glimelius B. Chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer of the pancreas. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 1998;5:235–241.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Hilgers W, Kern SE. Molecular genetic basis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Genes Chrom Cancer 1999;26:1–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Lichtenstein DR, Carr-Locke DL. Endoscopic palliation for unresectable pancreatic carcinoma. Surg Clin North Am 1995;75:969–988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Lillemoe KD. Current management of pancreatic carcinoma. Ann Surg 1995;221:133–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Lillemoe KD, Kaushal S, Cameron JL, et al. Distal pancreatectomy: indications and outcomes in 235 patients. Ann Surg 1999;229:693–700.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Loftus EV Jr, Olivares-Pakzad BA, Batts KP, et al. Intraductal papillary-mucinous tumors of the pancreas: clinicopathologic features, outcome, and nomenclature. Members of the Pancreas Clinic, and Pancreatic Surgeons of Mayo Clinic. Gastroenterology 1996;110:1909–1918.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Mannell A, van Heerden JA, Weiland LH, et al. Factors influencing survival after resection or ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Ann Surg 1986;203:403–407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Martin I, Hammond P, Scott J, et al. Cystic tumours of the pancreas. Br J Surg 1998;85:1484–1486.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Neoptolemos JP, Kerr DJ. Adjuvant therapy for pancreatic cancer. Br J Surg 1995;82:1012–1014.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Pfau PR, Chak A. Endoscopic ultrasonography. Endoscopy 2002;34:21–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Pitt HA. Curative treatment for pancreatic neoplasms. Standard resection. Surg Clin North Am 1995;75:891–904.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Sarr MG, Cameron JL. Surgical management of unresectable carcinoma of the pancreas. Surgery 1982;91:123–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Traverso LW, Longmire WP Jr. Preservation of the pylorus in pancreaticoduodenectomy. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1978;146:959–962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Warshaw AL, Fernandez-del Castillo C. Pancreatic carcinoma. N Engl J Med 1992;326:455–465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Zerbi A, Balzano G, Patuzzo R, et al. Comparison between pyloruspreserving and Whipple pancreatoduodenectomy. Br J Surg 1995;82:975–979.PubMedGoogle Scholar

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© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 2004

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