Advertisement

Modeling for Endangered-Species Recovery: Gray Wolves in the Western Great Lakes Region

  • Jean Fitts Cochrane
  • Robert G. Haight
  • Anthony M. Starfield
Chapter
  • 197 Downloads

2.5 Conclusions

We illustrated a pragmatic approach to modeling that involved working with expert biologists and managers to construct a simple population model that addressed specific management-oriented questions. The model included the basic processes of wolf demography and social structures necessary to make accurate predictions. Simple simulation experiments were used to determine the population impacts of changes in demographic parameters, and the results of the experiments were used to infer how changes in management activities and environmental processes might affect wolf populations. This approach to modeling will help address new questions about how wolves are managed in the western Great Lakes region as the population continues to recover and is removed from the Federal Endangered Species List. This modeling approach should also contribute to the recovery and management of other endangered species.

Keywords

Wolf Number Gray Wolf Wolf Population Population Viability Analysis Management Question 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Beissinger, S.R. and M.I. Westphal. 1998. On the use of demographic models of population viability in endangered species management. Journal of Wildlife Management 62:821–841.Google Scholar
  2. Boyce, M.S. 1992a. Population viability analysis. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 23:481–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boyce, M.S. 1992b. Wolf recovery for Yellowstone National Park: A simulation model. Pages 123–138 in D.R. McCullough and D.H. Barrett, editors. Wildlife 2001: Populations. Elsevier Applied Science, New York, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  4. Cochrane, J.F. 2000. Gray wolves in a small park: Analyzing cumulative effects through simulation. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.Google Scholar
  5. Dunning, J.B., B.J. Danielson, B.R. Noon, T.L. Root, R.H. Lamberson, and E. Stevens. 1995. Spatially explicit population models: Current forms and future uses. Ecological Applications 5:3–11.Google Scholar
  6. Ellis, S., R.C. Lacy, S. Kennedy-Stoskopf, D.E. Wildt, J. Shillcox, O. Byers, and U.S. Seal. 1999. Florida Panther Population and Habitat Viability Assessment and Genetics Workshop Report. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota, USA.Google Scholar
  7. Ewins, P., M. de Almeida, P. Miller, and O. Byers. 2000. Population and Habitat Viability Assessment Workshop for the Wolves of Algonquin Park: Final Report. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota, USA.Google Scholar
  8. Fritts, S.H. and L.N. Carbyn. 1995. Population viability, nature reserves, and the outlook for gray wolf conservation in North America. Restoration Ecology 3:26–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Forbes, G.J. and J.B. Theberge. 1996. Cross-boundary management of Algonquin Park wolves. Conservation Biology 10:1091–1097.Google Scholar
  10. Fuller, T.K. 1989. Population Dynamics of Wolves in North-Central Minnesota. Wildlife Monograph 105. The Wildlife Society, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.Google Scholar
  11. Fuller, T.K. 1995. Guidelines for Gray Wolf Management in the Northern Great Lakes Region. Technical Publication No. 271. International Wolf Center, Ely, Minnesota, USA.Google Scholar
  12. Fuller, T.K., W.E. Berg, G.L. Radde, M.S. Lenarz, and G.B. Joselyn. 1992. A history and current estimate of wolf distribution and numbers in Minnesota. Wildlife Society Bulletin 20:42–55.Google Scholar
  13. Gese, E.M. and L.D. Mech. 1991. Dispersal of wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota, 1969–1989. Canadian Journal of Zoology 69:2946–2955.Google Scholar
  14. Getz, W.M. and R.G. Haight. 1989. Population Harvesting: Demographic Models of Fish, Forest and Animal Resources. Monographs in Population Biology 27. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, USA.Google Scholar
  15. Gogan, P.J.P., E.M. Olexa, N. Thomas, D. Kuehn, and K.M. Podruzny. 2000. Ecological Status of Gray Wolves in and Adjacent to Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. Draft technical report. U.S. Geological Survey, Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center, Bozeman, Montana, USA.Google Scholar
  16. Haight, R.G. and L.D. Mech. 1997. Computer simulation of vasectomy for wolf control. Journal of Wildlife Management 61:1023–1031.Google Scholar
  17. Haight, R.G., D.J. Mladenoff, and A.P. Wydeven. 1998. Modeling disjunct gray wolf populations in semi-wild landscapes. Conservation Biology 12:879–888.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Haight, R.G., B. Cypher, P.A. Kelly, S. Phillips, H. Possingham, K. Ralls, A.M. Starfield, P.J. White, and D. Williams. 2002. Optimizing habitat protection using demographic models of population viability. Conservation Biology 16 (in press).Google Scholar
  19. Hayes, R.D. 1995. Numerical and functional responses of wolves, and regulation of moose in the Yukon. M.S. thesis. Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.Google Scholar
  20. Kelly, B.T., P.S. Miller, and U.S. Seal, editors. 1999. Population and habitat viability assessment workshop for the red wolf (Canis rufus). IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota, USA.Google Scholar
  21. Lamberson, R.H., B.R. Noon, C. Voss, and K.S. McKelvey. 1994. Reserve design for territorial species: The effects of patch size and spacing on the viability of the northern spotted owl. Conservation Biology 8:185–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lande, R. 1987. Extinction thresholds in demographic models of territorial populations. American Naturalist 130:624–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mech, L.D. 1970. The Wolf: The Ecology and Behavior of an Endangered Species. The Natural History Press, Garden City, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  24. Mech, L.D. 1986. Wolf Population in the Central Superior National Forest, 1967–1985. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service Research Paper NC-270. USDA Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.Google Scholar
  25. Mech, L.D. 1995. The challenge and opportunity of recovering wolf populations. Conservation Biology 9:270–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mech, L.D. 1998. Estimated costs of maintaining a recovered wolf population in agricultural regions of Minnesota. Wildlife Society Bulletin 26:817–822.Google Scholar
  27. Mech, L.D., S.H. Fritts, and M.E. Nelson. 1996. Wolf management in the 21st century, from public input to sterilization. Journal of Wildlife Research 1:195–198.Google Scholar
  28. Mladenoff, D.J.,T.A. Sickley, R.G. Haight, and A.P. Wydeven. 1995. A regional landscape analysis and prediction of favorable gray wolf habitat in the northern Great Lakes region. Conservation Biology 9:279–294.Google Scholar
  29. Nicolson, C.R., A.M. Starfield, G.P. Kofinas, and J.A. Kruse. 2002. Ten heuristics for interdisciplinary modeling projects. Ecosystems 5:376–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rolley, R.E., A.P. Wydeven, R.N. Schultz, R.T. Thiel, and B.E. Kohn. 1999. Wolf viability analysis. Appendix B. Pages 39–44 in Draft Wisconsin Wolf Management Plan. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.Google Scholar
  31. Rothman, R.J. and L.D. Mech. 1979. Scent-marking in lone wolves and newly formed pairs. Animal Behavior 27:750–760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Smith, D.,T. Meier, E. Geffen, L.D. Mech, J.W Burch, L.G. Adams, and R.K. Wayne. 1997. Is inbreeding common in wolf packs? Behavioral Ecology 8:384–391.Google Scholar
  33. Starfield, A.M. 1997. A pragmatic approach to modeling for wildlife management. Journal of Wildlife Management 61:261–270.Google Scholar
  34. Starfield, A.M. and A.L. Bleloch. 1986. Building models for conservation and wildlife management. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  35. Starfield, A.M., P.R. Furniss, and G.L. Smuts. 1981. A model of lion population dynamics as a function of social behavior. Pages 121–134 in C.W Fowler and T.D. Smith, editors. Dynamics of Large Mammal Populations. Springer-Verlag, New York, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  36. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 1996. Piping Plover Recovery plan. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Hadley, Massachusetts, USA.Google Scholar
  37. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 2000. Wolf Recovery in the Western Great Lakes States. Fact sheet. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 3, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.Google Scholar
  38. Walters, C.J., M. Stocker, and G.C. Haber. 1981. Simulation and optimization models for a wolf-ungulate system. Pages 317–337 in C.W. Fowler and T.D. Smith, editors. Dynamics of Large Mammal Populations. Springer-Verlag, New York, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  39. Wydeven, A.P., R.N. Schultz, and R.P. Thiel. 1995. Gray wolf (Canis lupus) population monitoring in Wisconsin, 1979–1991. Pages 147–156 in L.N. Carbyn, S.H. Fritts, and D.R. Seip, editors. Ecology and Conservation of Wolves in a Changing World. Canadian Circumpolar Institute, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean Fitts Cochrane
  • Robert G. Haight
  • Anthony M. Starfield

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations