Rehabilitation after Ankle Arthroscopy

  • Lars Konradsen
  • Per F. A. H. Renstrom


Stance Phase Plantar Flexion Ankle Sprain Subtalar Joint Reflex Inhibition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. Joint motion: method of measuring and recording, Chicago: AAOS, 1965;69–85.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sammarco GJ, Burstein AH, Frankel VH. Biomechanics of the ankle: a kinematic study. Orthop Clin North Am 1973;4:75–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Van Langelaan EJ. A kinematical analysis of the tarsal joints: an x-ray photogrammetric study. Acta Orthop Scand Suppl 204 1983;54:147–269.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Inman VT. The joints of the ankle. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1976;37.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sarrafian SK. Anatomy of the foot and ankle, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1993;508–513.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lang J, Wachsmuth W. Paktische anatomie: ein Lehr und Hilfsbuch der anatomischen gundlagen firt-zlichen handelns, vol 1, Part 4: Bein und Statik. Berlin: Springer, 1972;370.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Baumhauer JF, Alosa DM, Renstrom PA, et al. A prospective study of ankle injury risk factors. Am J Sports Med 1995;23:564–570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kannus P, Jozsa L, Renstrom P, et al. The effects of training, immobilization and remobilization on musculoskeletal tissue. 2. Remobilization and prevention of immobilization atrophy. Scand J Med Sci Sports 1992;2:164–176.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stokes M, Young A. The contribution of reflex inhibition to arthrogenous muscle weakness. Clin Sci 1984;67:7–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Michelson JD, Hutchins C. Mechanoreceptors in human ankle ligaments. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1995;77:219–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    McCloskey DI. Kinesthetic sensibility. Physiol Rev 1978;58:763–820.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sherrington CS. On the proprioceptive system, especially in its reflex aspects. Brain 1906;29:467–472.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Glencross D, Thornton E. Position sense following joint injury. J Sports Med 1981;21:23–27.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jerosch J, Hoffstetter I, Bork H, Bischof M. The influence of orthoses on the proprioception of the ankle joint. Knee Surg Sports Trauma Arthroscopy 1995;3:39–46.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    De Carlo MS, Talbot RW. Evaluation of ankle joint proprioception following injection of the anterior talofibular ligament. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1986;8:70–76.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Konradsen L, Ravn JB, Soerensen AI. Proprioception at the ankle: the effect of anaesthetic blockade of ligament receptors. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1993;75:433–436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Leandersson J, Eriksson E, Nilsson C, Wykman A. Proprioception in classical ballet dancers: a prospective study of the influence of an ankle sprain on proprioception in the ankle joint. Am J Sports Med 1996;24:370–374.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kleinrensink GJ, Stoeckart IL, Meulstee J, et al. Lowered motor conduction velocity of the peroneal nerve after inversion trauma. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1994;26:877–883.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Konradsen L, Olesen S, Hansen HM. Ankle sensorimotor control and eversion strength after acute ankle inversion injuries. Am J Sports Med 1998;26(1):72–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tropp H. Functional instability of the ankle joint. Thesis, Linkoping University Medical Dissertation no. 202, Linkoping, Sweden, 1985.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Karlsson J. Chronic lateral instability of the ankle joint: a clinical, radiological and experimental study. Thesis, Gothenburg University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden, 1989.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gain SN, Newton RA. Kinesthetic awareness in subjects with multiple ankle sprains. Phys Ther 1988;68:1667–1671.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dietz V. Human neuronal control of automatic functional movements: interaction between central programs and afferent input. Physiol Rev 1992;72:33–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mann RA, Moran GT, Dougherty SE. Comparative electromyography of the lower extremity in jogging, running, and sprinting. Am J Sports Med 1986;14:501–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shiavi R, Bugle HJ, Limbird T. Electromyographic gait assessment. Part 1. Adult EMG profiles and walking speed. J Rehabil Res Dev 1987;24:13–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dietz V, Quintera J, Sillem M. Stumbling reactions in man: significance of proprioceptive and preprogrammed mechanisms. J Physiol (Lond) 1987;386:149–163.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Inman VT, Ralston HJ, Todd F. Human walking, Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1981;22.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wright DG, Desai SM, Henderson WH. Action of the subtalar and ankle joint complex during the stance phase of walking. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1964;46:361–365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mann RA. Overview of the foot and ankle biomechanics. In: Jahss MH (ed). Disorders of the foot and ankle: medical and surgical management, 2nd ed.s Philadelphia: Saunders, 1991;385–408.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Folman Y, Wask J, Voloshin A, Liberty S. Cyclic impacts on heel strike: a possible biomechanical factor in the etiology of degenerative disease of the human locomotor system. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 1986;104:363–365.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Taylor DC, Dalton JD Jr, Seaber AV, Garrett WEJ. Viscoelastic properties of muscle-tendon units: the biomechanical effects of stretching. Am J Sports Med 1990;18:300–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hutton RS. Neuromuscular basis of stretching exercise. In: Komi PV (ed) Strength and power in sports. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific, 1993;29–38.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kottke FJ, Pauley DL, Ptak KA. The rationale for prolonged stretching for correction of shortening of connective tissue. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1966;47:345–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sapega AA, Quedenfeld TC, Moyer RA, Butler RA. Biophysical factors in range of motion exercise. Physician Sportsmed 1981;9:57–64.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Moore MA, Hutton RS. Electromyographic investigation of muscle stretching techniques. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1980;12:322–329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Etnyre BR, Lee EJ. Comments on proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching techniques. Res Q 1987;58:184–188.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Magnusson SP, Simonsen EB, Aagaard P, et al. Mechanical and physiological responses to stretching with and without preisometric contraction in human skeletal muscle. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1996;77:373–378.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Magnusson SP, Simonsen EB, Aagaard P, et al. Viscoelastic response to repeated static stretching in the human hamstring muscle. Scand J Med Sci Sports 1995;5:342–347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bohannon RW. Effect of repeated weight-minute muscle loading on the angle of straight-leg raising. Phys Ther 1984;64:491–497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Godges JJ, MacRae H, Longdon C, et al. The effects of two stretching procedures on hip range of motion and gait economy. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1989;11:350–357.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hertling D, Kessler RN. Management of common musculoskeletal disorders, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1980.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kessler RM. Friction massage. In: Kessler RM, Hertling D (eds) Management of common musculoskeletal disorders. Philadelphia: Harper & Row, 1983.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Arvidsson I, Eriksson E, Knutsson E, Arner S. Reduction of pain inhibition on voluntary muscle activation by epidural analgesia. Orthopaedics 1986;9:1415–1419.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Grimby G. Clinical aspects of strength and power training. In: Komi PV (ed) Strength and power in sports. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific, 1992.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Thome R, Renstrom P, Grimby G, Peterson L. Slow or fast isokinetic training after knee ligament surgery. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1987;9:475–479.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Grimby G, Thomee R. Principles of rehabilitation after injuries. In: Knuttgen HG, Tittel K (eds) Olympic book of sports medicine, vol 1. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific, 1988;489–508.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ashton H. The effect of increased tissue pressure on blood flow. Clin Orthop 1975;113:15–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Nielsen HV. External pressure-blood flow relations during limb compression in man. Acta Physiol Scand 1983;119:253–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Thorsson O. Muscle injuries in athletes. Dissertation, Lund University, Lund, Sweden, 1996.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hurme T, Rantanen J, Kalimo H. Effects of early cryotherapy in experimental skeletal muscle injury. Scand J Med Sci Sports 1993;3:46–51.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Barcroft H, Edholm K. The effect of temperature on blood flow and deep temperature on the human forearm. J Physiol (Lond) 1943;102:5–20.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kellett J. Acute soft tissue injuries: a review of the literature. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1986;18:489–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    McMaster WC, Liddie S, Waught TR. Laboratory evaluation of various cold therapy modalities. Am J Sports Med 1978;6:291–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lehmann JF. Therapeutic heat and cold, 3rd ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1982.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Michlovitz S. Thermal agents in rehabilitation. Philadelphia: Davis, 1986.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Licht S. Therapeutic heat and cold, 2nd ed. Baltimore: Waverly, 1965.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wright V, Johns RJ. Physical factors concerned with the stiffness of normal and diseased joints. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 1960;106:215–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Drez D. Therapeutic modalities for sport injuries. Chicago: Year Book, 1989.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Griffin JE, Karselis TC. Physical agents for physical therapists, 2nd ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1982.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Rivenburgh DW. Physical modalities in the treatment of tendon injuries. Clin Sports Med 1992;11:645–660.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rebman L. Suggestions from the clinic: ankle injuries: clinical observations. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1986;8:153–156.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Baker PL. SACH heel improves results of ankle fusion. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1970;52:1485–1486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ouzouian TJ, Kleiger B. Arthrodesis in the foot and ankle. In: Jahss MH (ed) Disorders of the foot and ankle, 2nd ed. vol 3. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1991.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lynch AF, Bourne RB, Rorabeck CH. The long term results of ankle arthrodesis. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1988;70B:113–116.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Mazur JM, Schwartz E, Simon SR. Ankle arthrodesis, long term follow-up with gait analysis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1979;61:964–975.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lars Konradsen
  • Per F. A. H. Renstrom

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations