General Aspects and Clinical Manifestations of 100 Iraqi Patients with Behçet’s Disease

  • Makram M. Al-Waiz
  • Ikbal Kh. Al-Joofy
  • Raad K. Muslih
  • Khalida M. Mousawy
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 528)


Most patients were in the third and fourth decades of life, males were stronger affected than females, age of onset and gender did not significantly influence the disease expression in Iraqi patients; higher frequency of familial occurrence and of joint involvement were clearly observed.


Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Joint Involvement Fourth Decade Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Disease Expression 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Davatchi, F., and Shahram, F., 1998, Epidemiology of Behçet’s disease in Middle East and Asia. In Behçet’s disease (D. Bang, E.-S. Lee, and S. Lee, eds.), Design Mecca Publishing, Seoul, pp. 581–587.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zouboulis, Ch.C., 1999, Epidemiology of Adamantiades-Behçet’s disease. Ann. Med. Interne 150: 488–498.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Neville, B., Damm, D., Allen, C., et al., 1995, Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. 1st ed., W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 236–255.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Al-Rawi, Z., Sharquie, K., Al-Hadithi, F., et al., 1986, Behçet’s disease in Iraqi patients. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 45: 987–990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Idil, A., Gürler, A., Boyvat, A., et al., 2000, The prevalence of Behçet’s disease above the age of 10 years. In Behçet’s disease (D. Bang, E.-S. Lee, and S. Lee, eds.), Design Mecca Publishing, Seoul, pp. 593–596.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Al-Joofy, I.Kh., 2001, Immunological and biochemical studies of Behçet’s disease in Iraqi patients. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Biology, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Burtis, C., and Ashwood, E., 1994, Tietz Text Book of Clinical Chemistry. 2nd ed, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, chapter 28.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bontoux, D., Alcalay, M., Reboux, J., et al., 1979, Changes in blood calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels in rheumatoid polyarthritis, and other types of inflammatory rheumatism. Rev. Rheum. Mal. Osteoartic. 46: 389–395.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jara, L.J., Lavalle, C., and Espinoza, L.R., 1997, Does prolactin have a role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus disease? J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr. 20: 1–26.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Akdag Küse, A.A., Azizlerii, G., Sarica, R., et al., The course of Behçet’s disease during pregnancy. In Behçet’s disease (D. Bang, E.-S. Lee, and S. Lee, eds.), Design Mecca Publishing, Seoul, p. 967.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Makram M. Al-Waiz
    • 2
  • Ikbal Kh. Al-Joofy
    • 4
  • Raad K. Muslih
    • 1
  • Khalida M. Mousawy
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry, College of ScienceAl-Mustanstansiriyah UniversityBaghdadIraq
  2. 2.Department of Dermatology and Venereology, College of MedicineBaghdad UniversityBaghdadIraq
  3. 3.Department of Microbiology, College of MedicineBaghdad UniversityBaghdadIraq
  4. 4.Department of Biology, College of ScienceAl-Mustanstansiriyah UniversityBaghdadIraq

Personalised recommendations