School Organizational Values: The Driving Force for Effectiveness and Change

  • Isaac A. Friedman
Part of the Studies in Educational Leadership book series (SIEL, volume 1)


Analysis of the major classical, neo-classical and modern organizational theories reveals that these theories are founded on eight primary values: Task-orientation, Elitism, Innovation, Consideration, Egalitarianism, Conservatism, Conformity, and Self-direction. A study was conducted to test for the empirical structure of the inter-relationships among these values, based on the premise that the relations among these values may align along four axes: Egalitarianism-Elitism; Consideration-Task-orientation; Conservatism-Innovation; Conformity-Self-direction. Thirty elementary and secondary schools in Israel participated in this study. Small Space Analysis (SSA) generated a unique concentric pattern of relations, different from what might have been expected. The findings of this study suggest that school cultures do not usually differ from one another in terms of the Consideration, Task-orientation, Innovation values, and that the variations among school cultures can be accommodated by the remaining values. A new theory of the unique structure of school organizational values is proposed based on the importance they attribute to each of these values. This theory may be helpful in classifying school cultures.


Organizational Theory Uncertainty Avoidance School Culture Outer Circle School Organizational 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

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  • Isaac A. Friedman

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