Advertisement

Excitation Energy Transfer: Functional and Dynamic Aspects of Lhc (cab) Proteins

  • Anastasios Melis
Part of the Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration book series (AIPH, volume 4)

Summary

Photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes have been the subject of extensive research because of interest in their primary function, namely the absorption of light and the transfer of excitation energy to a photochemical reaction center. As a result, a great deal of information has accumulated on the pigment co-factors, structure and folding of the corresponding proteins, molecular and supramolecular organization in the thylakoid membrane, and on their association with the photosystems. In addition to the structural-functional and assembly characteristics, this chapter reviews dynamic aspects of the light-harvesting complexes including the modulation of the light-harvesting antenna size by irradiance, the role of light-harvesting complexes in the regulation of excitation energy distribution between the two photosystems and the role they play as signal receptors for photosystem ratio adjustment in chloroplasts. Finally, the chapter examines aspects of exciton interactions between carotenoids and chlorophylls in the Lhc proteins and presents highlights of excitation transfer dynamics in the pigment bed of light-harvesting complexes.

Keywords

Thylakoid Membrane Excitation Energy Transfer Antenna Size Photochemical Reaction Center Lhcb Protein 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen JF (1992) Protein phosphorylation in regulation of photosynthesis. Biochim Biophys Acta 1098: 275–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen JF, Bennett J, Steinback KE and Arntzen CJ (1981) Chloroplast protein phosphorylation couples plastoquinone redox state to distribution of excitation energy between photosystems. Nature 291: 21–25Google Scholar
  3. Anderson JM (1980) P-700 content and polypeptide profile of chlorophyll-protein complexes of spinach and barley thylakoids. Biochim Biophys Acta 591: 113–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson JM (1986) Photoregulation of the composition, function, and structure of thylakoid membranes. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 37: 93–136Google Scholar
  5. Anderson JM and Andersson B (1988) The dynamic photosynthetic membrane and regulation of solar energy conversion. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 13: 351–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson JM and Barrett J (1986) Light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes of algae. In: Staehelin LA and Arntzen CJ (eds) Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, New Series, Vol., 19, pp 269–285. Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  7. Anderson JM and Chow WS (1992) A regulatory feedback mechanism for light acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus: Are Photosystems II and I self-regulatory sensors? In: Argyroudi-Akoyunoglou JH (ed) Regulation of Chloroplast Biogenesis, pp 475–482. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Anderson JM, Brown JS, Lam E and Malkin R (1983) Chlorophyll b: an integral component of Photosystem I of higher plant chloroplasts. Photochem Photobiol 38: 205–210Google Scholar
  9. Barber J (1982) Influence of surface charges on thylakoid structure and function. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 33: 261–295Google Scholar
  10. Bassi R, Giacometti GM and Simpson DJ (1988) Changes in the organization of stroma membranes induced by in vivo state 1-state 2 transition. Biochim Biophys Acta 935: 152–165Google Scholar
  11. Beauregard M, Martin I and Holzwarth AR (1991) Kinetic modeling of exciton migration in photosynthetic systems (1) Effects of pigment heterogeneity and antenna topography on exciton kinetics and charge separation yields. Biochim Biophys Acta 1060: 271–283Google Scholar
  12. Bennett J (1991) Protein phosphorylation in green plant chloroplasts. Ann Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 42: 281–311Google Scholar
  13. Bennett J, Steinback KE and Arntzen CJ (1980) Chloroplast phosphoproteins: Regulation of excitation energy transfer by phosphorylation of thylakoid membranes. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 77: 5253–5257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Berthold DA, Babcock GT, Yocum CF (1981) A highly-resolved, oxygen-evolving Photosystem II preparation from spinach thylakoid membranes. FEBS Lett 134: 231–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Björkman O and Demmig B (1987) Photon yield of O2 evolution and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics at 77 K among vascular plants of diverse origins. Planta 170: 489–504Google Scholar
  16. Björkman O and Ludlow MM (1972) Characterization of the light climate on the floor of a Queensland rainforest. Carnegie Inst Washington Yearbook 71: 85–94Google Scholar
  17. Björkman O, Boardman NK, Anderson JM, Thorne SW, Goodchild DJ and Pyliotis NA (1972) Effect of light intensity during growth of Atriplex patula on the capacity of photosynthetic reactions, chloroplast components and structure. Carnegie Inst Washington Yearbook, 71: 115–135Google Scholar
  18. Bratt CE and Åkerlund H-E (1992) The role of the chlorophyll a/b-binding complex CP29 in thylakoid membranes. In: Murata N (ed) Research in Photosynthesis, Vol I, pp 231–234. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  19. Bricker TM (1990) The structure and function of CPa-1 and CPa-2 in Photosystem II. Photosynthesis Research 24: 1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bruce BD, Malkin R, Wynn RM and Zilber A (1989) Structural organization and function of polypeptide subunits in Photosystem I. In: Barber J and Malkin R (eds) Techniques and Developments in Photosynthesis Research, NATO ASI series, Series A, Life sciences, Vol. 168, pp 61–80. Plenum Publishing Co, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. Chow WS, Haehnel W and Anderson JM (1987) The composition and function of thylakoid membranes from pea plants grown under white or green light with or without far-red light. Physiologia Plantarum 70: 196–202Google Scholar
  22. Chow WS, Goodchild DJ, Miller C and Anderson JM (1990a) The influence of high levels of brief or prolonged supplementary far-red illumination during growth on the photosynthetic characteristics, composition and morphology of Pisum sativum chloroplasts. Plant, Cell and Environment 13: 135–145Google Scholar
  23. Chow WS, Melis A and Anderson JM (1990b) Adjustments of photosystem stoichiometry in chloroplasts improve the quantum efficiency of photosynthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87: 7502–7506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Coughlan SJ (1988) Chloroplast thylakoid protein phosphorylation is influenced by mutations in the cytochrome b-f complex. Biochim Biophys Acta 933: 413–422Google Scholar
  25. Coughlan SJ and Hind G (1986) Protein kinases of the thylakoid membrane. J Biol Chem 261: 14062–14068PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Dainese P, Marquardt J, Pineau B and Bassi R (1992a) Identification of violaxanthin and zeaxanthin binding proteins in maize Photosystem II. In: Murata N (ed) Research in Photosynthesis, Vol I, pp 287–290. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  27. Dainese P, Santini C, Ghiretti-Magaldi A, Marquardt J, Tidu V, Mauro S, Bergantino E and Bassi R (1992b) The organization of pigment-proteins within Photosystem II. In: Murata N (ed) Research in Photosynthesis, Vol II, pp 13–20. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  28. Darr SC, Somerville SC and Arntzen CJ (1986) Monoclonal antibodies to the light harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein complex of Photosystem II. J Cell Biol 103: 733–740PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. DeCoster B, Christensen RL, Gebhard R, Lugtenburg J, Farhoosh R and Frank HA (1992) Low-lying electronic states of carotenoids. Biochim Biophys Acta 1102: 107–114Google Scholar
  30. Demmig-Adams B (1990) Carotenoids and photoprotection in plants–A role for the xanthophyll zeaxanthin. Biochim Biophys Acta 1020: 1–24Google Scholar
  31. Demmig-Adams B and Adams WW III (1992) Photoprotection and other responses of plants to high-light. Ann Rev Plant Physiol & Plant Mol Biol 43: 599–626Google Scholar
  32. Deng X and Melis A (1986) Phosphorylation of the light-harvesting complex II in higher plant chloroplasts: Effect on PS II and PS I absorption cross section. Photobiochem Photobiophys 13: 41–52Google Scholar
  33. Du M, Xie X, Jia Y, Mets L and Fleming GR (1993) Direct observation of ultrafast energy transfer in PS I core antenna. Chemical Physics Letters 201: 535–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dunahay TG and Staehelin LA (1986) Isolation and characterization of a new minor chlorophyll a-b-protein complex (CP24) of spinach. Plant Physiol 80: 429–434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Emerson R and Arnold W (1932a) A separation of the reactions in photosynthesis by means of intermittent light. J Gen Physiol 15: 391–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Emerson R and Arnold W (1932b) The photochemical reactions in photosynthesis. J Gen Physiol 16: 191–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Evans JR (1987) The dependence of quantum yield on wavelength and growth irradiance. Aust J Plant Physiol 14: 69–79Google Scholar
  38. Evans MCW (1982) Iron-sulfur centers in photosynthetic electron transport. In: Spiro TG (ed), Iron-sulfur Proteins, Vol. 4, pp 249–284. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  39. Fish LE, Kuck U and Bogorad L (1985) Two partially homologous adjacent light-inducible maize chloroplast genes encoding polypeptides of the P700 chlorophyll a protein complex of Photosystem I. J Biol Chem 260: 1413–1421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Fork DC and Satoh K (1986) The control by state transitions of the distribution of excitation energy in photosynthesis. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 37: 335–362Google Scholar
  41. Frank HA, Violette CA, Trautman JK, Owens TG and Albrecht AC (1991) Carotenoids in photosynthesis: Structure and photochemistry. Pure Appl Chem 63: 109–114Google Scholar
  42. French CS, Brown JS and Lawrence MC (1972) Four universal forms of chlorophyll. Plant Physiol 49: 421–429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Fujita Y (1992) Plasticity of biological system for light-energy conversion in oxygenic photosynthesis. In: Matsunaga T, Hikuma M and Kajiwara K (eds) Proceedings of the Symposium on the Development of Opto-bio Materials. Transl Mat Res Soc Japan 10: 25–45Google Scholar
  44. Fujita Y, Murakami A, Ohki K and Hagiwara N (1988) Regulation of photosystem composition in cyanobacterial photosynthetic systems: Evidence indicating that Photosystem I formation is controlled in response to the electron transport state. Plant Cell Physiol 29: 557–564Google Scholar
  45. Fujita Y, Iwama Y, Ohki K, Murakami A, Hagiwara N (1989) Regulation of the size of light-harvesting antennae in response to light intensity in the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Plant Cell Physiol 30: 1029–1037Google Scholar
  46. Gaffron H and Wohl K (1936) Zur theorie der assimilation. Naturwissenschaften 24: 81–90Google Scholar
  47. Gal A, Hauska G, Herrmann R and Ohad I (1990) Interaction between LHC-II kinase and cytochrome b 6-f in vitro control of kinase activity. J Biol Chem 265:, 19742–19749PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Ghirardi ML and Melis A (1984) Photosystem electron transport capacity and light-harvesting antenna size in maize chloroplasts. Plant Physiol 74: 993–998PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Ghirardi ML and Melis A (1988) Chlorophyll b-deficiency in soybean mutants. I. Effects on photosystem stoichiometry and chlorophyll antenna size. Biochim Biophys Acta 932: 130–137Google Scholar
  50. Ghirardi ML, McCauley SW and Melis A (1986) Photochemical apparatus organization in the thylakoid membrane of Hordeum vulgare wild-type and chlorophyll b-less chlorina-f2 mutant. Biochim Biophys Acta 851: 331–339Google Scholar
  51. Glazer AN and Melis A (1987) Photochemical reaction centers: Structure, organization, and function. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 38: 11–45Google Scholar
  52. Glick RE and Melis A (1988) Minimum photosynthetic unit size in system-I and system-II of barley chloroplasts. Biochim Biophys Acta 934: 151–155Google Scholar
  53. Glick RE, McCauley SW, Gruissem W and Melis A (1986) Light quality regulates expression of chloroplast genes and assembly of photosynthetic membrane complexes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 4287–4291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Golbeck JH (1992) Structure and function of Photosystem I. Ann Rev Plant Physiol and Plant Mol Biol 43: 293–324Google Scholar
  55. Goedheer JC (1969) Energy transfer from carotenoids to chlorophyll in blue-green, red and green algae and greening bean leaves. Biochim Biophys Acta 172: 252–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Green BR and Camm EL (1981) A model of the relationship of the chlorophyll-protein complexes associated with Photosystem II. In: Akoyunoglou G (ed) Photosynthesis III. Structure and Molecular Organization of the Photosynthetic Apparatus, pp 675–681. Balaban International Science Services, Philadelphia, PAGoogle Scholar
  57. Green BR and Camm EL (1982) The nature of the light-harvesting complex as defined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Biochim Biophys Acta 681: 256–262Google Scholar
  58. Greenbaum NL and Mauzerall DC (1991) Effect of irradiance level on distribution of chlorophylls between PS II and PS I as determined from optical cross-sections. Biochim Biophys Acta 1057: 195–207Google Scholar
  59. Greenbaum NL, Ley AC and Mauzerall DC (1987) Use of a light-induced respiratory transient to measure the optical cross section of Photosystem I in Chlorella. Plant Physiol 84: 879–882PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Greene BA, Allred DR, Morishige D and Staehelin LA (1988a) Hierarchical response of light-harvesting chlorophyll-proteins in a light-sensitive chlorophyll b-deficient mutant of maize. Plant Physiol 87: 357–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Greene BA, Staehelin LA and Melis A (1988b) Compensatory alterations in the photochemical apparatus of a photoregulatory, chlorophyll b-deficient mutant of maize. Plant Physiol 87: 365–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Guenther JE, Nemson JA and Melis A (1988) Photosystem stoichiometry and chlorophyll antenna size in Dunaliella salina (green algae). Biochim Biophys Acta 934: 108–117Google Scholar
  63. Harrison MA and Melis A (1992) Organization and stability of polypeptides associated with the chlorophyll a-b light-harvesting complex of Photosystem II. Plant Cell Physiol 33: 627–637Google Scholar
  64. Harrison MA, Nemson JA and Melis A (1993) Assembly and composition of the chlorophyll a-b light-harvesting complex of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.): Immunochemical analysis of chlorophyll b-less and chlorophyll b-deficient mutants. Photosynthesis Research 38: 141–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Haworth P, Kyle DJ, Horton P and Arntzen CJ (1982) Chloroplast membrane protein phosphorylation. Photochem Photobiol 36: 743–748Google Scholar
  66. Haworth P, Watson JL and Arntzen CJ (1983) The detection, isolation and characterization of a light-harvesting complex which is specifically associated with Photosystem I. Biochim Biophys Acta 724: 151–158Google Scholar
  67. Holzwarth AR (1992) Exciton dynamics in antennae and reaction centers of Photosystems I and II. In: Murata N (ed) Research in Photosynthesis, Vol I, pp 187–194. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  68. Holzwarth AR and Roelofs TA (1992) Recent advances in the understanding of chlorophyll excited state dynamics in thylakoid membranes and isolated reaction center complexes. J Photochem Photobiol B: Biol 15: 45–62Google Scholar
  69. Høyer-Hansen G, Bassi R, Honberg LS and Simpson DJ (1988) Immunological characterization of chlorophyll a-b-binding proteins of barley thylakoids. Planta 173: 12–21Google Scholar
  70. Ikeuchi M, Hirano A and Inoue Y (1991) Correspondence of apoproteins of light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b complexes associated with Photosystem I to cab genes: Evidence for a novel Type IV apoprotein. Plant Cell Physiol 32: 103–112.Google Scholar
  71. Jansson S (1992) The chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins: Studies on the Lhca and Lhcb genes of Scots pine. Doctoral dissertation, University of Umeå, Department of Plant PhysiologyGoogle Scholar
  72. Jansson S, Pichersky E, Bassi R, Green BR, Ikeuchi M, Melis A, Simpson DJ, Spangfort M, Staehelin LA, Thornber JP (1992) A nomenclature for the genes encoding the chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins of higher plants. Plant Mol Biol Rep 10: 242–253Google Scholar
  73. Jennings RC, Zucchelli G and Garlaschi FM (1990) Excitation energy transfer from the chlorophyll spectral forms to Photosystem II reaction centers: A fluorescence induction study. Biochim Biophys Acta 1016: 259–265Google Scholar
  74. Karukstis KK (1992) Chlorophyll fluorescence analyses of Photosystem II reaction center heterogeneity. J Photochem Photobiol B: Biol 15: 63–74Google Scholar
  75. Katoh T (1992) Sl state of fucoxanthin involved in energy transfer to chlorophyll a in the light-harvesting proteins of brown algae. In: Murata N (ed), Research in Photosynthesis, Vol. I, pp 227–230. Kluwer Academic Publishers DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  76. Katoh T, Nagashima U and Mimuro M (1991) Fluorescence properties of the allelic carotenoid fucoxanthin: Implications for energy transfer in photosynthetic systems. Photosyn Res 27: 221–226Google Scholar
  77. Kim JH, Glick RE and Melis A (1993) Dynamics of photosystem stoichiometry adjustment by light-quality in chloroplasts. Plant Physiol 102: 181–190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Kirk JTO (1983) Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems. Cambridge University Press. New YorkGoogle Scholar
  79. Kirsch W, Seyer P, and Herrmann RG (1986) Nucleotide sequence of the clustered genes for two P700 chlorophyll a apoproteins of the Photosystem I reaction center and the ribosomal protein S14 of the spinach plastid chromosome. Curr Genet 10: 843–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Knoetzel J, Svendsen I and Simpson DJ (1992) Identification of the Photosystem I antenna polypeptides in barley. Isolation of 3 pigment-binding antenna complexes. Eur J Biochem 206: 209–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kühlbrandt W and Wang DN (1991) Three-dimensional structure of plant light-harvesting complex determined by electron crystallography. Nature 350: 130–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Kühlbrandt W, Wang DN and Fujiyoshi Y (1994) Atomic model of plant light-harvesting complex determined by electron crystallography. Nature 367: 614–621PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Kyle DJ, Kuang T-Y, Watson JL and Arntzen CJ (1984) Movement of a subpopulation of LHC-II from grana to stroma lamellae as a consequence of its phosphorylation. Biochim Biophys Acta 765: 89–96Google Scholar
  84. Lam E, Baltimore B, Ortiz W, Chollar S, Melis A and Malkin R (1983) Characterization of a resolved oxygen-evolving Photosystem II preparation from spinach chloroplasts. Biochim Biophys Acta 724: 201–211Google Scholar
  85. Lam E, Ortiz W and Malkin R (1984a) Chlorophyll a/b proteins of Photosystem I. FEBS Lett 168: 10–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lam E, Ortiz W, Mayfield S and Malkin R (1984b) Isolation and characterization of a light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b complex associated with Photosystem I. Plant Physiol 74: 650–655PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. LaRoche J, Mortain-Bertrand A and Falkowski PG (1991) Light-intensity-induced changes in cab mRNA and light-harvesting complex II apoprotein levels in the unicellular chlorophyte Dunaliella tertiolecta. Plant Physiol 97: 147–153Google Scholar
  88. Larsson UK and Andersson B (1985) Different degrees of phosphorylation and lateral mobility of two polypeptides belonging to the light-harvesting complex of Photosystem II. Biochim Biophys Acta 809: 396–402Google Scholar
  89. Larsson UK, Ögren E, Öquist G and Andersson B (1986) Electron transport and fluorescence studies on the functional interaction between phospho-LHC-II and Photosystem I in isolated stroma lamellae vesicles. Photobiochem Photobiophys 13: 29–39Google Scholar
  90. Larsson UK, Sundby C and Andersson B (1987a) Characterization of two different subpopulations of spinach light-harvesting chlorophyll a-b-protein complex (LHC-II): Polypeptide composition, phosphorylation pattern and association with Photosystem II. Biochim Biophys Acta 894: 59–68.Google Scholar
  91. Larsson UK, Anderson JM and Andersson B (1987b) Variations in the relative content of the peripheral and inner light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein complex (LHC-II) subpopulations during thylakoid light adaptation and development. Biochim Biophys Acta 894: 69–75Google Scholar
  92. Leong TA and Anderson JM (1984a) Adaptation of the thylakoid membranes of pea chloroplasts to light intensities. I. Study on the distribution of chlorophyll-protein complexes. Photosynth Res 5: 105–115Google Scholar
  93. Leong TA and Anderson JM (1984b) Adaptation of the thylakoid membranes of pea chloroplasts to light intensities. II. Regulation of electron-transport capacities, electron carriers, coupling factor (CF1) activity and rates of photosynthesis. Photosynth Res 5: 117–128Google Scholar
  94. Ley AC and Mauzerall DC (1982) Absolute absorption cross sections for Photosystem II and the minimum quantum requirement for photosynthesis in Chlorella vulgaris. Biochim Biophys Acta 680: 95–106Google Scholar
  95. Lichtenthaler HK and Meir D (1984) Regulation of chloroplast photomorphogenesis by light intensity and light quality. In: Ellis RJ (ed), Chloroplast Biogenesis, pp 245–258. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  96. MacKinney G (1940) Criteria for purity of chlorophyll preparations. J Biol Chem 132: 91–109Google Scholar
  97. Malkin S and Fork DC (1981) Photosynthetic units of sun and shade plants. Plant Physiol 67: 580–583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Mauzerall D (1986) The optical cross section and absolute size of a photosynthetic unit. Photosynth Res 10: 163–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Mauzerall D and Greenbaum NL (1989) The absolute size of a photosynthetic unit. Biochim Biophys Acta 974: 119–140Google Scholar
  100. Mawson BT, Morrissey PJ, Gomez A and Melis A (1994) Thylakoid membrane development and differentiation: Assembly of the chlorophyll a-b light-harvesting complex and evidence for the origin of Mr=19,17,5 and 13.4 kDa proteins. Plant Cell Physiol 35: 341–351Google Scholar
  101. Melis A (1984) Light regulation of photosynthetic membrane structure, organization and function. J Cell Biochem 24: 271–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Melis A (1989) Spectroscopic methods in photosynthesis: Photosystem stoichiometry and chlorophyll antenna size. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B 323: 397–409Google Scholar
  103. Melis A (1991) Dynamics of photosynthetic membrane composition and function. Biochim Biophys Acta 1058: 87–106Google Scholar
  104. Melis A and Anderson JM (1983) Structural and functional organization of the photosystems in spinach chloroplasts: Antenna size, relative electron transport capacity, and chlorophyll composition. Biochim Biophys Acta 724: 473–484.Google Scholar
  105. Melis A and Brown JS (1980) Stoichiometry of system I and system II reaction centers and of plastoquinone in different photosynthetic membranes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77: 4712–4716.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Melis A and Harvey GW (1981) Regulation of photosystem stoichiometry, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b content and relation to chloroplast ultrastructure. Biochim Biophys Acta 637: 138–145.Google Scholar
  107. Melis A, Manodori A, Glick RE, Ghirardi ML, McCauley SW and Neale PJ (1985) The mechanism of photosynthetic membrane adaptation to environmental stress conditions: A hypothesis on the role of electron-transport capacity and of ATP/NADPH pool in the regulation of thylakoid membrane organization and function. Physiol Veg 23: 757–765Google Scholar
  108. Melis A, Mullineaux CW and Allen JF (1989) Acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus to Photosystem I or Photosystem II light: Evidence from quantum yield measurement and fluorescence spectroscopy of cyanobacterial cells. Z Naturforsch Teil C 44: 109–118Google Scholar
  109. Michel H, Hunt DF, Shabanowitz J and Bennett J (1988) Tandem mass spectrometry reveals that three PS II proteins of spinach chloroplasts contain N-acetyl-O-phosphothreonine at their NH2 termini. J Biol Chem 25: 1123–1130Google Scholar
  110. Morrissey PJ, Glick RE and Melis A (1989) Supramolecular assembly and function of subunits associated with the chlorophyll a/b light-harvesting complex II (LHC-II) in soybean chloroplasts. Plant Cell Physiol 30: 335–344Google Scholar
  111. Mukerji I and Sauer K (1993) Energy transfer dynamics of an isolated light-harvesting complex of Photosystem I from spinach: Time resolved fluorescence measurements at 295 K and 77 K. Biochim Biophys Acta 1142: 311–320Google Scholar
  112. Mullet JE (1983) The amino acid sequence of the polypeptide segments which regulate membrane adhesion (grana stacking) in chloroplasts. J Biol Chem 258: 9941–9948PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Murakami A and Fujita Y (1988) Steady state of photosynthesis in cyanobacterial photosynthetic systems before and after regulation of electron transport composition: Overall rate of photosynthesis and PS I/PS II composition. Plant Cell Physiol 29: 305–311Google Scholar
  114. Murakami A and Fujita Y (1991) Steady state ofphotosynthetic electron transport in cells of the cyanophyte Synechocystis PCC 6714 having different stoichiometry between PS I and PS II: Analysis of flash-induced oxidation-reduction of cytochrome f and P700 under steady state of photosynthesis. Plant Cell Physiol 32: 213–222Google Scholar
  115. Murata N, Miyao M, Omata T, Matsunami H and Kuwabara T (1984) Stoichiometry of components in the photosynthetic oxygen evolution system of Photosystem II particles prepared with Triton X-100 from spinach chloroplasts. Biochim Biophys Acta 765: 363–369Google Scholar
  116. Nanba O and Satoh K (1987) Isolation of a Photosystem II reaction center consisting of D-1 and D-2 polypeptides and cytochrome b-559. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84: 109–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Neale PJ and Melis A (1986) Algal photosynthetic membrane complexes and the photosynthesis-irradiance curve: A comparison of light-adaptation responses in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. J Phycol 22: 531–538Google Scholar
  118. Ortiz W, Lam E, Ghirardi M and Malkin R (1984) Antenna function of a chlorophyll a/b protein complex of Photosystem I. Biochim Biophys Acta 766: 505–509Google Scholar
  119. Owens TG, Shreve AP, Albrecht AC (1992) Dynamics and mechanism of singlet energy transfer between carotenoids and chlorophylls: Light-harvesting and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching. In: Murata N (ed), Research in Photosynthesis, Vol I, pp 179–186. Kluwer Academic Publishers DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  120. Öquist G, Samuelson G and Bishop NI (1980) On the role of β-carotene in the reaction center chlorophyll a antenna of Photosystem I. Physiol Plant 50: 63–70Google Scholar
  121. Peter GF and Thornber JP (1988) The antenna components of Photosystem II with emphasis on the major pigment-protein, LHC-IIb. In: Scheer H and Schneider S (eds), Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Systems, Organization and Function, pp 175–186. Walter de Gruyter, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  122. Peter GF and Thornber JP (1991) Biochemical composition and organization of higher plant Photosystem II light-harvesting pigment-proteins. J Biol Chem 266: 16745–16754PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Ranjeva R and Boudet AM (1987) Phosphorylation of proteins in plants: Regulatory effects and potential involvement in stimulus/response coupling. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 38: 73–93Google Scholar
  124. Rijgersberg CP, Melis A, Amesz J and Swager JA (1979) Quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence and photochemical activity of chloroplasts at low temperature. In: Chlorophyll Organization and Energy Transfer in Photosynthesis. The CIBA Foundation Symposium 61 (new series), pp 305–322. Excerpta Medica, Elsevier, North HollandGoogle Scholar
  125. Roelofs TA, Lee C-H and Holzwarth AR (1992) Global target analysis of picosecond chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics from pea chloroplasts A new approach to the characterization of the primary processes in Photosystem II α and β units. Biophys J 61: 1147–1163Google Scholar
  126. Satoh K and Butler WL (1978) Competition between the 735 nm fluorescence and the photochemistry of Photosystem I in chloroplasts at low temperature. Biochim Biophys Acta 502: 103–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Seifermanns-Harms D (1985) Carotenoids in photosynthesis. I. Location in photosynthetic membranes and light-harvesting function. Biochim Biophys Acta 811: 325–355Google Scholar
  128. Shreve AP, Trautman JK, Owens TG and Albrecht AC (1991) A femtosecond study of electronic state dynamics of fucoxanthin and implications for photosynthetic carotenoid to chlorophyll energy transfer mechanisms. Chemical Physics 154: 171–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Simpson D (1990) The structure of Photosystem I and II. In: Baltscheffsky M (ed) Current Research in Photosynthesis, Vol II, pp 725–732. Kluwer Academic Publishers, BostonGoogle Scholar
  130. Simpson DJ, Machold O, Høyer-Hansen G and von Wettstein D (1985) Chlorina mutants of barley (Hordeum vulgare L). Carlsberg Res Commun 50: 223–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Smith BM, Morrissey PJ, Guenther JE, Nemson JA, Harrison MA, Allen JF, Melis A (1990) Response of the photosynthetic apparatus in Dunaliella salina (green algae) to irradiance stress. Plant Physiol 93: 1433–1440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Smith H, Samson G and Fork DC (1993) Photosynthetic acclimation to shade–Probing the role of phytochromes using photomorphogenetic mutants of tomato. Plant, Cell and Environment 16: 929–937Google Scholar
  133. Spangfort M and Andersson B (1989) Subpopulations of the main chlorophyll a/b light-harvesting complex of Photosystem II: Isolation and biochemical characterization. Biochim Biophys Acta 977: 163–170Google Scholar
  134. Spangfort M, Larsson UK, Anderson JM and Andersson B (1987) Isolation of two different subpopulations of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b complex of Photosystem II. FEBS Lett 224: 343–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Staehelin LA (1986) Chloroplast structure and supramolecular organization of photosynthetic membranes. In: Staehelin LA and Arntzen CJ (eds) Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, Photosynthesis III, Vol, 19, pp 1–83. Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  136. Sukenik A, Bennett J and Falkowski PG (1988) Changes in the abundance of individual apoproteins of light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein complexes of Photosystem I and II with growth irradiance in the marine chlorophyte Dunaliella tertiolecta. Biochim Biophys Acta 932: 206–215Google Scholar
  137. Telfer A (1987) The importance of membrane surface electrical charge on the regulation of photosynthetic electron-transport by reversible protein phosphorylation. In: Biggins J (ed) Progress in Photosynthesis Research, Vol II, pp 689–696. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  138. Telfer A, Allen JF, Barber J and Bennett J (1983) Thylakoid protein phosphorylation during state 1-state 2 transitions in osmotically shocked pea chloroplasts. Biochim Biophys Acta 722: 176–181Google Scholar
  139. Telfer A, Whitelegge JP, Bottin H and Barber J (1986) Changes in the efficiency of P700 photo-oxidation in response to protein phosphorylation detected by flash absorption spectroscopy. J Chem Soc, Faraday Trans 2. 82: 2207–2215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Terashima I and Saeki T (1983) Light environment within a leaf. I. Optical properties of paradermal sections of Camelia leaves with special reference to differences in the optical properties of palisade and spongy tissues. Plant Cell Physiol 24: 1493–1501Google Scholar
  141. Thielen APGM and van Gorkom HJ (1981a) Quantum efficiency and antenna size of Photosystem IIα IIβ and I in tobacco chloroplasts. Biochim Biophys Acta 635: 111–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Thielen APGM and van Gorkom HJ (1981b) Energy transfer and quantum yield in Photosystem II. Biochim Biophys Acta 637: 439–446Google Scholar
  143. Thornber JP (1986) Biochemical characterization and structure of pigment-proteins of photosynthetic organisms. In: Staehelin LA and Arntzen CJ (eds) Encyclopædia of Plant Physiology, New Series, Vol 19, pp 98–115. Springer Verlag, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  144. Thornber JP and Highkin HP (1974) Composition of the photosynthetic apparatus of normal barley leaves and a mutant lacking chlorophyll b. Eur J Biochem 41: 109–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Thornber JP, Gregory RPF, Smith CA and Bailey JL (1967) Studies on the nature of the chloroplast lamella. I. Preparation and some properties of two chlorophyll-protein complexes. Biochemistry 6: 391–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Thornber JP, Peter GF, Chitnis PR, Nechushtai R and Vainstein A (1988) The light-harvesting complex of Photosystem II of higher plants. In: Stevens SE Jr and Bryant DA (eds), Light-energy Transduction in Photosynthesis: Higher Plant and Bacterial Models, pp 137–154. The American Society of Plant Physiologists, Rockville, MarylandGoogle Scholar
  147. Trautman JK, Shreve AP, Owens TG and Albrect AC (1990) Femtosecond dynamics of carotenoid-to-chlorophyll energy transfer in thylakoid membrane preparations from Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Nannochloropsis sp. Chem Phys Lett 166: 369–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Vogelmann T (1989) Penetration of light into plants. Photochem Photobiol 50: 895–902Google Scholar
  149. Vogelmann TC (1993) Plant tissue optics. Ann Rev Plant Physiol and Plant Mol Biol 44: 231–251Google Scholar
  150. Wang RT and Myers J (1974) On the State 1-State 2 phenomenon in photosynthesis. Biochim Biophys Acta 347: 134–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Welty BA, Morishige DT and Thornber JP (1992) Identity of a group of 13.5–20 kDa polypeptides whose apparent abundance decreases during plastid development. Plant Cell Physiol 33: 1049–1055Google Scholar
  152. Werst M, Jia Y, Mets L and Fleming GR (1992) Energy transfer and trapping in the Photosystem I core antenna A temperature study. Biophys J 61: 868–878PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Wilhelm C and Wild A (1984) The variability of the photosynthetic unit in Chlorella. J Plant Physiol 115: 125–135Google Scholar
  154. Yamamoto HY (1979) Biochemistry of the violaxanthin cycle in higher plants. Pure Appl Chem 51: 639–648Google Scholar
  155. Zucchelli G, Jennings RC and Garlaschi FM (1992) Independent fluorescence emission of the chlorophyll spectral forms in higher plant Photosystem II. Biochim Biophys Acta 1099: 163–169Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anastasios Melis
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant BiologyUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations