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Phenomenological Macroscopic Symmetry in Dissipative Nonlinear Systems

  • J. S. Shiner
  • Stanislaw Sieniutycz
Part of the Understanding Chemical Reactivity book series (UCRE, volume 18)

Abstract

We show that systems whose equations of motion are derivable from a Lagrangian formulation extended to allow for dissipative effects by the inclusion of dissipative forces of the form (resistance X flow) and subject to constraints expressing conservation of quantities such as mass and charge possess a symmetry property at stationary states arbitrarily far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Examples of such systems are electrical networks] discrete mechanical systems and systems of chemical reactions. The symmetry is in general only an algebraic one, not the differential Onsager reciprocity valid close to equilibrium; the more general property does reduce to the Onsager result in the equilibrium limit, however. No restrictions are placed on the form of the resistances for dissipative processes; they may have arbitrary dependencies on the state of the system and/or its flows. Thus, the symmetry property is not limited to linear systems. The approach presented here leads naturally to the proper set of flows and forces for which the Onsager-like symmetry holds.

Keywords

Dissipative Process Electrical Network Dissipation Function Dissipative Force Internal State Variable 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. S. Shiner
    • 1
  • Stanislaw Sieniutycz
    • 2
  1. 1.Physiologisches InstitutUniversität BernBernSwitzerland
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringWarsaw Technical UniversityWarsawPoland

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