Surgical Treatment of Postoperative Hemorrhage
Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is one of the standard surgical procedures for the treatment of the lesion in the head of the pancreas, the lower common bile duct, the duodenum, and the periampullary region. The postoperative complications include pancreatic fistula, postoperative hemorrhage, intra-abdominal infections, delayed gastric emptying, and so on. The mortality after PD was reduced to less than 5% with the development of minimally invasive instruments, the improvement of surgical skills, and the completion of perioperative management. Although the incidence is low, pancreatic postoperative hemorrhage (PPH) is even critical with a mortality rate of 30–50% [1, 2]. Therefore, the early diagnosis and surgical treatment of PPH has become one of the key issues of pancreatic surgeons.
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